These expected categories were based on the disciplines expressed by the main UDC numbers and groups of auxiliary numbers. He obtained his Matura in at the GRG 12 Erlgasse and subsequently completed mandatory military service in We also believe that users should not be forced to use only the suggested terms.
Since , he has managed a range of funded projects, either directly or in his role as CDLR manager. Multiple Directions to Usability Classificatory ontologies A. Digital Libraries and Digital Repositories are data-intensive with large numbers of full- text resources accessible online. This paper attempts to present an application of the faceted classification scheme as enunciated by Ranganathan in developing ontologies.
Introduction The phenomenal presence of Digital Libraries DLs on the Web highlights the importance of structuring data. The size and complexity of the information stored in Digital Libraries DLs is steadily increasing.
As opposed to the loosely-organized information sources available on the Web, DLs provide metadata-supported, well-structured data. In the context of the envisioned Semantic Web Berners-Lee et al. The Semantic Web SW cannot realize its potential unless intelligent automatic procedures help to analyze and transform current natural language knowledge into its Semantic representation. Metadata, a key idea of the Semantic Web, has already been in practice for centuries in libraries through the use of different knowledge organization systems.
In DLs, metadata have many roles and functions, such as semantic and structural information representation, organization and retrieval. The intrinsic complexity of heterogeneous content requires highly complicated and re-mixed metadata schemes rather than just the use of monolithic sets of elements.
Subject metadata are represented by several knowledge organization systems KOS , e. The present paper tries to explore the synergy of DLs and KOS and the possibilities of embedding the advantages of faceted system in DLs. Knowledge organization systems include classification schemes that organize materials at a general level such as books on a shelf , subject headings that provide more detailed access, and authority files that control variant versions of key information such as geographic names and personal names Hodge, They also include less traditional schemes, such as semantic networks and ontologies.
Knowledge organization systems as mechanisms for organizing information find applications in every library, museum, and archive. Digital libraries often tend to adopt one or more KOSs for organizing their collections and resources.
The scheme may be a traditional KOS, relevant to the scope of the material and the expected audience for the digital library such as the Dewey Decimal System or the INSPEC Thesaurus , or a commercially developed scheme such as the Yahoo or Excite categories, or a locally developed scheme for a corporate intranet. KOSs enhance the digital library in a number of ways.
They can be used to connect a digital library resource to a related resource. The related information may reside within the KOS itself, or the KOS may be used as an intermediary file to retrieve the key needed to access information in another resource. According to Soergel in a DL, knowledge organization comes into play in several closely inter-related ways: Organization of information in substantive databases; b.
Organization of information within documents; c. Organization of information about documents and databases metadata ; d. Organization of information about any type of subject treated in documents needed to support finding documents and other digital objects ; e. Information about concepts, terms and their relationships; organization of ontological and lexical information.
The inter-related approach highlights the fact that users to DL can be varied, depending on the intended use of a given resource, but recognizes that the subject or topical approach is one of the most common in any domain.
Therefore, a KOS can make digital library materials accessible to disparate communities. This may be realized by Hodge, op. Metadata standards are implemented in DLs to provide the necessary pointers to information by breaking up the content into bits and pieces. Metadata standards are particularly applicable to digital libraries as tools for finding information. The function of metadata has a parallel with that of the card catalogue in traditional print libraries.
The logical extension of such data description methods was carried forward by bibliographic databases. Data were structured into fields and subfields that followed standards in the element set. Also, several standards emerged for the data elements themselves, including ISO date format, AACR2 rules for data extraction, and so forth. For the purpose of this discussion, we would like to broadly classify metadata into two kinds: Bibliographic metadata are based on traditional library catalogue data.
Non-bibliographic metadata could be descriptions of any entity, such as a person, organization, service, market products, etc. Traditionally, machine-readable catalogues based on standards such as MARC21 include authority files for personal names, organizations and institutions, geographical places, etc.
Most of these authority files are used for vocabulary control or standardization of terminology used within systems. In a digital library environment, though, such authority files can be transformed and enriched by using metadata. In this paper only bibliographic metadata will be analysed. Metadata are about knowledge, meaning the ability to turn information and data into effective action Haynes, But if a mechanism is provided to state in the query the following equation: This kind of mechanism was perfected in bibliographic databases on CD and online information systems.
In Web parlance, metadata elements are used in the place of bibliographic elements. Obviously, it requires a different kind of metadata other than just bibliographic. Thus, each requirement is context-specific. Dublin Core, the widely used standard for metadata, describes Web pages with 15 structured elements that can be used optionally; each element can be repeated as well.
Elements can be further qualified by element refinements and data standards Dublin Core Metadata Initiative, The design and content of Dublin Core being very simple, the need was felt by different communities to extensively add on elements or change them to suit the description of different datasets. However, Dublin core is used as a minimum common denominator among and between digital libraries.
Perhaps the reason can be attributed to the contributions of library KOSs and their different application in library OPACs and indexing systems. These classifications are used extensively by Australian institutional repositories and are known by the more generic term of ASRC subject headings.
With all these implementations, developers of popular DL packages also started incorporating features for embedding KOSs. The Greenstone Digital library offers a unique way of knowledge organization by providing for hierarchical phrase browsing Witten, This kind of browsing is performed through an interactive interface which allows access to a phrase hierarchy that has been extracted automatically from the full text of a document collection.
It is designed to resemble a paper- based subject index or thesaurus. The user enters an initial word into a search box, and a list of phrases containing this word is shown. These phrases are simple at the first instance; each can be further expanded into a list of more complete phrases that contain the original one.
This allows hierarchical access to the lexical content of a document collection. Apart from this, semantic metadata that are structured in hierarchies, such as library classifications, can be presented as trees where the nodes open to reveal the data beneath. In this case, the user is provided an auxiliary file giving labels for intermediate nodes of the hierarchy e. Lucene in Dspace use post-coordinate indexing and depend on ranking algorithms to display search results in decreasing order of relevance.
In contrast, pre-coordinated indexing system results are better in precision often at the cost of recall. It is generally accepted that precision and recall are inversely proportional. With vast quantities of information on the Web, perhaps it should be rethought whether the end user should be given the choice of searching either pre- or post-coordinated indexes. Thus far we hardly have computational models of pre-coordinated indexing systems in deployed system, though there have been experimental models of it Prasad, Multiple Directions to Usability 4.
Although classification schedules are traditionally used to assign class numbers to documents for the purposes of shelf arrangement, in the context of bibliographic databases and the Web there is no requirement for a linear arrangement.
One of the major advantages of forgoing class numbers is that documents can be arranged by different criteria, e. Class numbers impose a mono-hierarchical system where, as with thesauri or classauri Bhattacharyya, , they are not constrained by such a requirement and therefore Web documents can be browsed in a user-defined order.
In a library environment, where it is important to physically arrange books by using class numbers, there is no purpose of class numbers in indexing. While it is justified to convert class numbers into subject strings in the case of already worked out class numbers, it is not a justifiable approach to construct class numbers and translate them back to subject key terms. In the latter case, one can move from idea plane to verbal plane without bothering about notational plane altogether.
While linear arrangement was the focus of library classification system, subject indexing system was deployed to add context to concepts in content through post and pre- coordinate indexing methods Ranganathan, b. An advantage of the analytico- synthetic approach in subject indexing as found in POPSI is that associative relations between documents can be visualized.
The accumulated experience and best practices of library and information sciences for the organization of information and knowledge are obviously complementary, and they are applicable to the grand vision, since they include the many existing knowledge organization systems already developed and in use such as classification schemes, subject headings and thesauri. Representing such concept schemes in a machine-processible language and structure will help to realize the idea of concept-based instead of text-based searching, which is the main motto of Semantic Web.
The primary goal of SKOS is to provide a simple machine-understandable representation framework for KOSs with enough flexibility and extensibility to cope with the variations found in KOS idioms, and fully capable of supporting KOS publication and use within a decentralised, distributed information environment such as the Semantic Web.
SKOS is intended for use in three important information retrieval applications: Vocabulary development, Indexing and Searching. It is ultimately designed to support interoperation of these three key components. SKOS representation of classification schemes will add semantics to the visual-based searching techniques such as hierarchical browsing, faceted search, etc.
A classification scheme is a taxonomy with a notation for each entity which denote its position in the hierarchy. This mapping uses links inspired by the SKOS mapping vocabulary. SKOS can clearly represent properties of concepts, and relationships among or between the concepts — both hierarchical and associative.
Hierarchical relations can be displayed using skos: But in an enumerative classification system, SKOS fails to provide the order of main classes and other topics. Multiple Directions to Usability tackled to an extent by treating the main classes as independent schemes and with use of skos: OrderedCollection to include main classes and skos: Another problem is the absence of a vocabulary element to denote alternative classification notations or cross-listed notations.
Although SKOS provides skos: The present specification, as directly demonstrated above, does not support the requirements for representing faceted classification schemes. Unlike enumerative schemes, the structure of faceted schemes mainly consists of isolates distributed over fundamental categories and its rounds and levels.
In addition, analytico-synthetic structures provide for the combination of the various basic subjects, isolates, etc. An approach to dealing with such kind of complex structures in SKOS could be by grouping concepts using vocabulary elements such as skos: Consider an example of subject approach to a collection that we try to facetize. CC analysis of the complex query is presented below a detailed discussion of facet analysis is beyond the scope of this paper: Youth by age Urban by residence Energy: Drug habits round1 Treatment round2 Space Isolate: North India Time Isolate: Year Common Isolate: Report From the above analysis we can figure out that for representing it into SKOS we would need proper labelling for Basic subject, Personality two isolates superimposed , two rounds of Energy, and labels for Space, Time and other Common isolates.
For representing the basic subject, Sociology, there can be two approaches i. ConceptScheme or by treating sociology as a skos: Concept for representing the occurrences urban and youth of the facet Personality. For one instance, skos: OrderedCollection can be used, but again the superimposition is not possible as is required to represent concept behind urban youth.
Similarly, for Energy isolates the concepts of rounds cannot be conveyed. To represent common isolates, independent schemes can be made for them and can be borrowed anytime using skos: While treating the basic subject as an independent scheme, the fundamental categories PMEST can be considered as skos: Collection, but in another approach where the basic subject is a skos: Concept, there should be an extension like skos: Conclusion As discussed in the section above, faceted structures point to concepts by the topical scope as well as by the context albeit being rather complex systems.
Use of these provisions makes the SKOS syntax of faceted structures very lengthy and complex. There are other issues, such as skos: Therefore, there is a high need to develop SKOS extensions in order to solve representation problems for complex structures such as those of faceted classifications.
Facet class, and the skos: As subjects are continuously evolving and new terminology keeps pouring in, it is essential to adopt a system that can accommodate emerging new terms. There have been experiments in this direction of automatic updating of classification schedules, which could be applied to building Classauri Madalli, The pre-requisites for such systems are Prasad, op.
Natural Language Parser to generate subject strings based on existing library classification systems. A rule-base for constructing pre-coordinated subject strings. This warrants extension of OWL or SKOS which can be really a faceted KOS or ontology schema that could accommodate fundamental categories as enunciated by the analytico-synthetic approach in classic library systems.
A manual of concept analysis and subject indexing. User Interface in Digital Libraries. Stockholm, Sweden, October Scientific American, May , pp. Beyond Traditional Authority Files. Council on Library and Information Resources. W3C Working Draft 16 May A case study in Colon Classification.
W3C Proposed Recommendation 15 June Annals of Library and Information Studies, 54 1 , pp. Library Review, 57 3 , pp. Annals of Library Science and Documentation, 1 4 , pp. Journal of Documentation, 20, pp. IEEE Multimedia, 13 2 , pp. A particular focus is put on the classification domain, by means of examples taken from typical classification vocabularies, such as UDC.
The paper illustrates how elements of the SKOS model can capture important aspects of classifications, but that some key features, such as concept coordination, are still lacking proper means of representation. Hints are given on how SKOS can be extended with elements that address these issues. The author attempts to analyse those potential elements, keeping in mind the interoperability motivation that guided the design of SKOS in the first place. In particular he will try to answer the following question: Antoine Isaac is a post-doctoral researcher at Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam and Koninklijke Bibliotheek where has been working for a number of years on how Semantic Web technology can be successfully used in Cultural Heritage environment.
Multiple Directions to Usability Visual analysis of classification scheme Veslava Osinska Nicolaus Copernicus University Poland Abstract This paper proposes a novel methodology to visualize a classification scheme. The attribute classes, subject descriptors and keywords were processed in a dataset to make a graphical representation of the documents.
The general conception is based on the similarity of co-classes themes proportional to the number of common publications. The final number of all possible classes and subclasses in the collection was and therefore the similarity matrix of co-classes had the same dimension. A spherical surface was chosen as the target information space.
Classes and documents node locations on the sphere were obtained by means of Multidimensional Scaling coordinates. By representing the surface on a plane like a map projection, it is possible to analyze the visualization layout. The graphical patterns were organized in some colour clusters. For evaluation of given visualization maps, graphics filtering was applied. This proposed method can be very useful in interdisciplinary research fields.
It allows for a great amount of heterogeneous information to be conveyed in a compact display, including topics, relationships among topics, frequency of occurrence, importance and changes of these properties over time. Veslava Osinska received an M. She is currently finalizing her Ph. She has applied her Computer Science background and programming skills to research areas which include effective visualization of multidimensional information as, for example, bibliological data generated in digital libraries.
Folksonomies consisting of subject designators tags assigned by users, however, have one important drawback: As a consequence, the use of tags to browse information resources requires moving from one resource to another, based on coincidence and not on the pre-established meaningful or logical connections that may exist between related resources.
We suggest that the semantic structure of the Universal Decimal Classification UDC may be used in complementing and supporting tag-based browsing. In this work, two specific questions were investigated: A collection of the most popular tags from Amazon, LibraryThing, Delicious and 43Things was investigated. The universal nature of UDC was examined through the universality of topics and facets covering diverse human interests which are at the same time interconnected and form a rich and intricate semantic structure.
The results suggest that UDC-supported folksonomies could be implemented in resource discovery, in particular in library portals and catalogues. This enables users to retrieve documents they have already accessed or find new documents other users have tagged.
Browsing is aided by tag clouds, i. Inspired by numerous research reports on folksonomies in ILS, we proposed two research questions: Their selection was intentional: This is a site that allows users to note and share personal goals. Library Thing allows users to catalogue books and similar traditional library material. Three works were selected for analysis: In each case, tags associated with the books, sound recordings and movies were analysed.
The same sample was also analysed in Amazon, the popular Web bookstore. All samples were collected in June Our content analysis consisted of categorizing tags. Some categories were expected and prepared in advance such as place, time, genre etc. These expected categories were based on the disciplines expressed by the main UDC numbers and groups of auxiliary numbers. We expected the opposite from Library Thing and Amazon because we selected traditional library material for their parts of the study sample.
Our expectations proved to be incorrect. More concepts represented in tags of Del. The largest number of tags from Del. Most tags from this sample were in the area of computer science. This was also observed by Spiteri This was followed by classes 3, 6 and 7. The highest number of tags from 43 Things belongs to UDC class 6 followed by classes 3 and 7.
People seem to be interested in health, the arts and topics of a social and ethical nature. Auxiliary numbers expressing place and time rank 2nd and class 8, expressing literary genre, ranks 3rd. Classes 0 and 9 follow. Historical topics are featured in the background of two stories Cold Mountain and The Sound of Music. The results for Amazon are similar. Most tags are in class 7, expressing music and film. Auxiliary numbers expressing time and place follow and classes 8 and 9 rank 3rd.
In total, topic was most frequently expressed by tags in the sample. Names were the second highest ranked attribute of the documents. They were frequently assigned as tags for books, movies and soundtracks and they account for the largest share of concepts excluded from UDC. Multiple Directions to Usability in the film version of the story were also assigned to books e. These names appeared in Library Thing and Amazon.
In this case, it was counted as the name attribute. Titles of other works were also mentioned in Amazon and Library Thing, establishing a connection within the bibliographic universe. It seems that some support for Functional requirements for bibliographic records could also be found in this detail. Genre ranks third in total but is the second most frequently expressed attribute among Library Thing, Amazon and Del.
It only appears once in 43 Things. A related attribute, carrier, expresses the technology supporting the media, e. Edition is only expressed a few times in Library Thing and Amazon tags.
It is also related to the form of a document and can refer to the movie version, as opposed to the book. These two codes were kept separate because in some cases the movie tag would appear among tags assigned to the book. In such a case, this denotes a different edition of the same work, not the form of the information object it describes. Evaluation is as frequently used an attribute as form in total.
Awards are an attribute closely related to evaluation. In contrast to the subjective evaluation of items by users, awards are given by a professional authority and are regarded as an objective evaluation. While subjective evaluation was always discouraged in library catalogues, awards could be used as part of notes area 7 of ISBD.
Collection or series is a relatively popular group of tags among users of Library Thing and Amazon, but not used in 43 Things or Del. This information is part of area 6 of ISBD, but not of subject description in library catalogues. There are a number of attributes that seem to be important to users and are also part of the UDC. They are listed in table 1. Tags from the four analyzed folksonomies which are 1. They represent awards, series or collection, edition, evaluation, experience, action, occasion, and purpose, availability, ownership and related work.
However, none of the analysed sites adopted ISBD and as a consequence their bibliographic information is not complete. It seems that this information is actually important to users for information objects like books, sound and video recordings. It is unlikely that the evaluation would become part of a bibliographic or subject description. Form of document and medium carrier are two attributes related to each other that are both usually part of the bibliographic description and can also be expressed with UDC numbers.
The question is whether repetition of the same data in the bibliographic and subject description part of the catalogue record is reasonable and economically justifiable. Trant and Bearman reported a similar finding. We were surprised by the high rank of evaluation tags for Library Thing and Amazon. Librarians carefully avoid such categorisation because it is subjective and could be offensive to the user. It also cannot be expressed with UDC numbers. Another surprise was the large number of names among tags for traditional library material in Library Thing and Amazon.
Names can be added to the UDC numbers. However, the question is whether all the associated different roles names could and should be expressed in the UDC.
Ambiguity is a frequent complaint about folksonomies. Neologisms may be culturally biased. We do not know whether these percentages are high or low. It can be expected that they would cause difficulties in searching and browsing. It takes time to include new concepts in established indexing languages. Conclusion and suggestions Golub and colleagues presented a project, where user tagging was enhanced by traditional indexing languages. They found that users like to utilise the assistance offered by those indexing languages.
These services identified the most frequently used facets among tags and structured their input by these facets. We propose that the user is offered a structured form for adding his or her tags. Multiple Directions to Usability The structure would separate personal and geographic names not distinguishing real and imaginary persons and places.
Authority files for personal and corporate names, and thesauri of geographical names could be offered here to help the user in selecting the appropriate form of name. UDC could be offered to help users in selecting topic, genre, form and medium.
When recording time, users should be offered examples of standardized forms of reporting time. Suggestions could also be offered regarding awards. On the other hand, evaluation, action, purpose, and experience should remain entirely free from suggestions.
We also believe that users should not be forced to use only the suggested terms. They should be able to either use the suggested term or write their own. It would also be appropriate to ask users to suggest similar works. The form should provide space for entering any other terms a user wishes to enter that are not appropriate to prescribed fields on the form. Our finding that a larger proportion of tags used in Del. Functional requirements for bibliographic records: F The structure and form of folksonomy tags: The paper addresses issues in establishing a user-friendly systematic collection arrangement following a merger of two high school and college library collections classified according to UDC.
In the way it was used, this scheme presented some weaknesses with respect to collection usage. Due to the disciplinary nature of UDC, subjects and phenomena are dispersed in the scheme according to the disciplines in which they are the subject of study.
At the same time students in a school library often seek interdisciplinary subjects and need access to clusters of documents which according to UDC may be classed in several different knowledge areas.
The author illustrates how this problem was resolved by re-arranging the collection according to phenomena. This was achieved by interpreting UDC numbers as if they represented specific phenomena.
Thus, by superimposing some local indexing rules onto a disciplinary knowledge organization system it was possible to collocate interdisciplinary subjects under a single class number. Furthermore, by reversing subject numbers and form auxiliaries atlases, dictionaries, textbooks etc. The author suggests that, in practice, one often needs to overcome the constraints of disciplinary classification and he discusses the approach used in his school library collection.
It is rather a report and account of a practical experience in applying and resolving problems of book classification in our particular library environment. Concerns expressed here are entirely pragmatic.
More specifically I will describe the situation, the problems we have faced, and how we have tried to deal with them. I will explain some aspects of the solution we have applied but also point out some of the remaining issues. Our school currently has around students in attendance split evenly between two levels of programmes mentioned above: Included in the teaching staff are two full-time and one part-time librarian.
In France, high school and junior high school librarians have the same qualification and same professional status as teachers. Information and Documentation Centres have a central position in schools. To emphasise the centrality of the CDI role in education even further, when schools are built, libraries are always placed in the centre of the building. Needless to say, with the digitisation and Internet this practice now extends to the computer rooms and Internet access points which are always adjacent to libraries and in the centre of the school building.
Librarians are responsible for training students in basic information literacy skills such as finding information and learning how to use information retrieval tools. These also include the use of classification, online catalogues, encyclopaedias, creating and correcting references and whenever possible, methods in Web navigation and resource discovery, and finding of relevant and pertinent information. Because of the staff shortage, due to a general trend in reducing staff costs, this important role of a school librarian becomes harder to fulfil.
Interdisciplinary activities within the curricula For several years, even decades, the French educational system has been promoting interdisciplinary activities, providing various training frameworks. Supervised Personal Paperwork , for which they have to create a document on a topic related to at least two disciplines.
This assignment includes research of appropriate documents and resources as well as, for science students only, carrying out an experiment.
Students are gradually prepared for this kind of work since their junior high school. It is outside the scope of this paper to discuss the issue of interdisciplinarity which is often described using different and confusing terminology: Frequently, different authors use the same terminology to describe different things.
An excellent book giving more insight into this issue and its relationship to education is written by Roul Pantanella Before the new building, the school had two separate libraries, one for secondary and one for college education. Upon the completion of the new building, collections were merged into a single library.
I was appointed librarian and joined the team of five librarians in the year when the process of merging the two collections was about to start. Multiple Directions to Usability 10, copies. The book processing consisted of assigning of copy identifiers and sticking barcodes and anti-theft devices, while at the same time verifying the acquisition number and corresponding record in the library system.
The process was repeated for books from both collections. Although there were slight differences in application both libraries used UDC for systematic shelf arrangement. As we had to manipulate and rearrange books in the new library the issue of classification has become central to our work. In France two classification systems are used predominantly: Hence, we had to make a decision.
After some deliberation, and in order to facilitate the task of merging the collections, we have decided to stay with UDC. As a reference tool we have chosen the French 7th abridged edition and the decision was that we would align our classification indexes to this edition with a few exceptions and I was put in charge of preparing concordances i. The length of the notation in the new class 8 Languages.
Literature and the number of books that library had already classified by the old numbers was an argument against reclassification to new numbers in this subject area. Another class that we considered leaving unchanged was 9 Biography. However, we have chosen to reclassify religion Broughton, even though the new class was not available in the French edition and we had to use the Swedish and Spanish abridged schedules online.
In one of our libraries we had notation with inverted combination of main numbers and common auxiliaries of form Table 1f, for the purpose of grouping by form which was used for dictionaries, atlases and textbooks. We have decided to continue with this practice which is a common approach, as the change of citation order is allowed in UDC if required McIlwaine, , p.
Classification and shelf arrangement It is often said that a classification number when written in the call number is no more than an indication of a book location. But such a book location is not devoid of meaning and may be very important, especially when a library provides open access to shelves.
One should not confuse the use of call numbers in closed stacks where books are looked for by library staff only. Although students can search for specific books using catalogues this does not replace the function of free collection browsing supported by systematically organized books. Being aware of this, we cannot but be concerned about the broad organization of classifications such as UDC which is based on disciplines.
Books about the same subject, object, topic, phenomenon, may be scattered among various disciplines. In a library that has to support education orientated to and concerned with interdisciplinarity - organization of a collection according to traditional disciplines may represent a problem. From discipline to phenomenon What is a discipline, a school discipline, which is slightly different from a university discipline?
In one corner we have: A field of knowledge within a discipline is organized applying different methods and theories, and as pointed out by Szostak , widely used general bibliographic classifications reproduce or mirror this way of organization. Such an approach may be suitable for specialized libraries, with collections covering one discipline or several related disciplines.
However, for a general library, similar to the one in our school, this can lead to the above mentioned problem of scattering.
This was the reason why we have decided to apply UDC as if it is not a disciplinary but, what can be now described as, a phenomena classification. Initially, we were simply seeking a practical solution for organizing books as they were needed by our students. It was only afterwards and upon reflection that we have realised the theoretical implications.
For instance, normally a book about civilisation and the way of life in France during the 18th century was classified in French history, as was a book about French towns of that same century, which is a logical approach from a discipline perspective.
We have, however, moved these, the first to index 39 Cultural anthropology, and the second to index As an example, for the notion of fire, when determining the index to use, we had to work through the UDC vocabulary which still uses discipline terminology, and infer other related meanings: Here are some of the new definitions in French for classes and indexes, which are written on the shelves: Multiple Directions to Usability The concept of place Not until the merging of the two libraries was closer to completion were we able to move our indexing policy further in the direction of subject or phenomena classification, using options available in UDC.
In the process, the content analysis and indexing policy have become important issues. Content analysis answers the question what is this document about? According to our new indexing policy: We were able to apply a systematic principle for cases where the obvious subject of study is a geographical entity.
For practical reasons, books indexed with plus date were not changed, and an equivalence is indicated on the shelves: Only the new books, repaired or rebound books have been moved to Where other regions are concerned, the labels have been modified.
An unsolved problem remains: For now, it is still at index Moving it to 06 Organizations is not satisfying. One option is we consider is Europe - Confederations of states. What should not be forgotten when in the process of content analysis and indexing is its purpose: The purpose of this index was neither to shortcut the reading of the document nor to incite to read it.
In my view this indexing policy is wrong. The result of a document analysis can be formulated in a series of descriptors which indicate the subject, topic, object or phenomenon studied, the point of view or method, date and place if of any importance, and also the physical and intellectual forms of the document.
All these elements could be translated into a classification index, but not all of them are necessary. The judgement about the selection of elements that should be recorded is a part of a good content analysis. Another criterion to keep an element or not depends on the set of documents held by the library. Some precisions may be useless if there are only a few documents, and necessary if there are many of them. An analysis and its translation into a classmark have a purpose, which is: That also means that the user is capable of performing a good analysis in order to search and find documents.
The function of classification and thesauri is to act as a bridge between the document analysis performed by a documentalist and the analysis made by the information seeker. Therefore, a classmark is not only needed to locate and find books on library shelves, but to communicate meaning to the user.
Even if at the moment there are a number of tools that are based on natural language, this does not make the need for good query analysis superfluous. This analysis is equivalent to the method used by documentalists or librarians.
People who are used to performing such analysis have less problems in understanding a classmark, providing the classmark is clear and intelligible. That kind of knowledge could be useful for both shelf browsing and searching a library catalogue. Process of implementation of the new indexing policy As mentioned earlier in the paper, we have approached establishing the new indexing policy at the beginning of the collection merger and the decisions was driven by a practical need.
At the beginning of our project we were not aware of any theory that would support what we were planning to achieve. Our indexing policy was based on a simple reasoning and focused on the question: Later we were able to establish a link between our practice and the existing theory dealing with the same issue, primarily through the work by Van Slype but also through reading about the work of Ranganathan, J. Literature research helped us finding a theoretical framework that explains, systematizes and justifies our practical approach.
According to this principle when a suffix or a prefix, in spite being available and correct, does not really add to the meaning, it should not be used. The same principle should be applied when building a classmark.
Classification can also be associated with a principle in cybernetics: It is obvious that the high level of precision should be pursued only if this is useful i. Equally, a classmark shared by many documents about the same topic should not be long, allowing the extensions by facets. In fact, the classmark should bear enough meaning as to describe the document in a summarised way, avoiding excess or unnecessary meanings.
This was the reason why we have opted not to undertake any significant changes in class 8. Literary criticism and theory is collocated as separate from fiction following the standard subdivision for these subjects at For the remainder i.
We do not make distinctions between these two different types of literary studies. The literature in UDC is classified based on the language in which the work was originally produced, hence works of the authors writing in two languages will belong to two literatures e.
Beckett work written in English will belong to the body of English literature and those written in French will be collocated with the French literature. A similar case is Kundera whose works belong to both Czech and French literature. This criterion of formal classification is also applied with philosophy, where books by and about certain philosophers get collocated under 1 followed by an alphabetical extension e.
Even some general libraries in which collections are divided into different units, can operate in terms of knowledge organization as independent specialized libraries.
Our policy was very suitable for our library setting in which all books are located in the same space and can benefit from our phenomenon-based ordering system. It is possible to consider the disciplines as independent phenomena, in 00 or 16 or It is also possible to consider them as a facet of the main studied phenomenon Hong, , by ending, for instance, a facet indicator such as 0 or a. An example would be e. As our system gives preference to the place facet, all non-fiction books are gathered under the class of China irrespective whether these are Chinese or translated.
But our system did not give provision for gathering fiction about China. We have resolved the problem by creating a bibliography of all available works which we have made available to students next to the Chinese language section. According to our system each book had to be analysed in order to determine the precise topic, or phenomenon described, and not the discipline in which it can be studied. The question is which of the topics for fire should be use to collocate all books even if they do not describe exactly the same phenomenon.
For the moment, our policy is to classify documents with the classmark corresponding to its precise analysed phenomenon. But this approach is still under discussion. Apart from this example we have many such problems with books in the area of engineering. When the place is related to a single country e.
Geopolitics of Russia, it is not clear which citation order of facets would be the most appropriate or with possibility to add a date. We have decided to collocate books under Geopolitics , determining that the topic is more about diplomacy and geopolitics than Russia. This is open for discussion. The same problem appears in books about population and demography. But we have continued to use combination of the number for English literature and place for e. This is however the only situation in which we associate place with literature because of the significance of the subject and the number of books.
Possible developments We can envisage two possible developments: It is the problem of an authority list. Some considerations may influence the continuation of this system. For instance, a change in library staff could lead to a change in classification in spite of the size of the collections.
That change could be a move to DDC, as officially recommended, which would be a return to a discipline-based classification. A new librarian less aware of classification research could drive the system little by little back to a disciplinary use of UDC.
Conclusion The experience with classification was not a controlled experiment led by a dedicated researcher. It was a development motivated by a real collection management need and an answer to a practical question: We are aware that all our arguments can be challenged and reversed.
This research undertaken in the process of writing this paper will certainly help us go further towards a more efficient system. And we are looking forward to receiving feedback. Jerusalem, Israel August Les articulations logiques du discours.
The paper outlines the standardization function of the Czech Subject Authority File and explores the role of UDC as a switching language, i. Subject indexing and classification systems used at the institutional and national level may differ from one another in their levels of specificity, syntactic features e.
These differences raise compatibility problems and make any mapping efforts more difficult. The paper explains how such difficulties may be partially overcome by means of the UDC system. The author illustrates the potential application of UDC as a linking element between different subject organization tools used by memory institutions. In this context the author discusses subject indexing systems used in libraries, museums, galleries and archives.
Controlled vocabularies versus ontologies Let me start with a question: One could ask, cui bono are they created? Who needs subject authority control? Subject cataloguers, indexers, end-users? With this paper we try to show the benefits of applying subject authority control in the current online environment.
The main goal of memory institutions is to preserve, categorise and make available a tremendous amount of human cultural heritage. In order to reach this goal, librarians, curators and archivists have been devising many knowledge organization systems, like thesauri and other controlled vocabularies, which are used to provide subject access to information across the Web. Most of these controlled vocabularies are specific to fields, disciplines, institutions, and even to individual collections or sub-collections within an institution, e.
The prevalence of digital information resources brought about several issues for these conventional knowledge organization systems. Controlled vocabularies can be used for categorizing content and for building labelling systems, among other aims. Ontologies, as a form of knowledge representation, are defined as a systematic account of existence, a specification of a conceptualization Gruber, Following a reorganization of cabinet Faymann I in , he became state secretary for integration in the Ministry of the Interior.
In , Kurz shortly served as a member of the National Council. After the legislative election , Kurz was appointed Foreign Minister and became the youngest person to ever hold this position in Austrian history. Mitterlehner's withdrawal from all political posts triggered the end of the Kern government and thus lead to the early legislative election , in which Kurz participated as top candidate of his party, gaining tremendous popularity with his core topics immigration and social politics.
Ultimately his party, under the campaign alias "Sebastian Kurz List — the new People's Party", achieved the first place in the election, receiving As leader of the largest party after the election, Kurz was charged with the formation of a new government by President Alexander Van der Bellen and started to look out for a coalition partner to ensure a majority in legislature.
The search and subsequent negotiations turned out quick and his party went into a coalition government with the Freedom Party. Kurz was sworn in as chancellor on 18 December alongside with his new government. During his chancellorship, Kurz enabled the 12 hours working day, initiated a fusion of all Austrian social insurances, enacted the "Family Bonus Plus", abolished the smoking ban, prohibited headscarfs in the public, amended family subsidy for European foreigners, installed the monitoring compact, established compulsory German language classes and rejected the Global Compact for Migration.
As chancellor, Kurz has frequently been described as publicly restrained. His style of governing is regarded as active and expeditious by supporters, but uncooperative and hasty by opposers. In addition, Kurz is the youngest currently serving head of government in the world. His father is an engineer and his mother is a grammar school teacher.
He was brought up in the Meidling district, where he still lives. In Kurz was elected chairman of the youth branch of the Austrian People's Party. Between and he was a member of Vienna's city council, where he focused on generational fairness and ensuring pensions. In the general election , Kurz was elected as a member of the National Council , winning the most direct votes of any member in the election. In December , Kurz became Austria's foreign minister, whose portfolio at his request was widened to include social integration.
At the time of his swearing-in Kurz was Austria's youngest government minister since the foundation of the republic and the youngest foreign minister in the world . His first trip abroad was Croatia , marking the continuous Austrian support for that country's accession to the European Union. In the course of the European migrant crisis in , Kurz called for more effective control of the EU's external borders  and presented a point plan towards integration with a special focus on the areas of language and education, labour and the job market, rule of law and values.
In , he proposed a new law prohibiting the foreign funding of mosques or payment of imams' salaries, and regulation of the version of the Quran that may be used in Austria. Kurz said the changes were intended to "clearly combat" the influence of radical Islam in Austria. Kurz was appointed acting party leader after former head Reinhold Mitterlehner stepped down in May He was later formally elected chairman, receiving This section is a list of notable actions enacted by members of the Kurz government , of which overall responsibility lies in the hands of the chancellor ; Sebastian Kurz.
Most governments in Austrian history have been coalition governments composed of two parties — the senior party and the junior party. Since the Chancellor can't issue directives towards cabinet members, coalition governments of two parties are in practice a co-rule between the leader of the senior and the leader of the junior party, each de facto controlling the ministers of their own party.
The bonus only affects parents whose children obtain child subsidy " Kinderbeihilfe ". The Social Democratic Party heavily criticised the bonus for "being solely of benefit for well-earning people and completely forgetting the less well-earners and unemployed". Fusion of social insurances On 13 December the Kurz government enacted an amendment to the social insurance law.
The changes shall reform the organisation and structure of Austria's social insurance system, mainly through fusion and with dismissing "redundant" functionaries as well as modernizing workplaces. The government stated that "centralizing the social insurance system will improve services for the insured". In addition the Association of Austrian Social Insurances Hauptverband der österreichischen Sozialversicherungsträger , which comprises all social insurance organisations, will be reduced and disempowered when the amendment is in effect.
The project will officially begin in April with the initiation of a parliamentary transitional committee managing and supervising the fusion. The committee will be abolished at the end of and starting the new organisation and structure will be in full effect.
The opposition consisting of SPÖ NEOS and NOW , the chairman of the Association of Austrian Social Insurances and multiple health economists have condemned these changes, saying that "they would not centralize but decentralize and impair a perfectly functioning and effective system and thus be a general worsening for the insured". The amendment did not pass through the usual assessment process " Begutachtungsprozess ".
The average working time in Austria is 8 hours per day, the amendment extended the maximum working time of 10 hours per day to 12 hours and the 50 hours working time per week to 60 hours.
Chancellor Kurz and his government commented the changes with "legally allowing employees to work more a day on a voluntary basis". In theory, this means that an employee could technically decline an employer's request to work more. Prior to the amendment it has only been possible to work longer than 10 hours per day in certain circumstances and always with the explicit approval of the works council. Principal supporters of these changes have been the Economic Chamber and the Federation of Industries.
Opposers have raised strong concerns regarding the amendment, doubting an actual appliance of the "voluntary basis", since they expect the employer to refuse a denial of the employee to work longer and thus dismiss the employee. Family subsidy for European foreigners In October , the Kurz government amended the family subsidy for European foreigners through legislation, the changes will be in effect as of 1 January The amendment affects foreign citizens of the European Union which work within Austria but whose children reside outside of Austria.
The changes adjust family subsidy obtained by these children to the local price level of their country of residence.