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Wie bewerten Sie diese Seite? Problem mit dieser Seite? Für die aufgeführten Inhalte kann keine Gewährleistung für die Vollständigkeit, Richtigkeit und Genauigkeit übernommen werden. On December 29, the United Nations General Assembly approved a resolution calling the intervention in Panama a "flagrant violation of international law and of the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the States".

The urban population, many living below the poverty level, was greatly affected by the intervention. As pointed out in by a UN Technical Assistance Mission to Panama, the bombardments during the invasion displaced 20, people. The most heavily affected district was impoverished El Chorrillo , where several blocks of apartments were completely destroyed. El Chorrillo had been built in days of Canal construction, a series of wooden barracks which easily caught fire under the United States attack.

During its five-year term, the often-fractious government struggled to meet the public's high expectations. Its new police force was a major improvement over its predecessor but was not fully able to deter crime.

Perez Balladares ran as the candidate for a three-party coalition dominated by the Democratic Revolutionary Party PRD , the erstwhile political arm of military dictatorships. Perez Balladares worked skillfully during the campaign to rehabilitate the PRD's image, emphasizing the party's populist Torrijos roots rather than its association with Noriega. He won the election with only 33 percent of the vote when the major non-PRD forces splintered into competing factions.

His administration carried out economic reforms and often worked closely with the US on implementation of the Canal treaties. Moscoso's administration successfully handled the Panama Canal transfer and was effective in the administration of the Canal. Torrijos ran his campaign on a platform of, among other pledges, a "zero tolerance" for corruption, a problem endemic to the Moscoso and Perez Balladares administrations. He formed a National Anti-Corruption Council whose members represented the highest levels of government and civil society, labor organizations, and religious leadership.

In addition, many of his closest Cabinet ministers were non-political technocrats known for their support for the Torrijos government's anti-corruption aims. Despite the Torrijos administration's public stance on corruption, many high-profile cases, [ clarification needed ] particularly involving political or business elites, were never acted upon. Conservative supermarket magnate Ricardo Martinelli was elected to succeed Martin Torrijos with a landslide victory in the May presidential election.

Martinelli's business credentials drew voters worried by slowing growth due to the world financial crisis. He was sworn in on July 1, Its location on the Isthmus of Panama is strategic. Panama's total area is 74, The dominant feature of Panama's geography is the central spine of mountains and hills that forms the continental divide. The divide does not form part of the great mountain chains of North America, and only near the Colombian border are there highlands related to the Andean system of South America.

The spine that forms the divide is the highly eroded arch of an uplift from the sea bottom, in which peaks were formed by volcanic intrusions. The mountain range of the divide is called the Cordillera de Talamanca near the Costa Rican border. As a whole, the range between Costa Rica and the canal is generally referred to by geographers as the Cordillera Central.

This and unrest, and forest protection movements, create a break in the Pan-American Highway , which otherwise forms a complete road from Alaska to Patagonia. Panama's wildlife is the most diverse in Central America. It is home to many South American species as well as to North American wildlife. Nearly rivers lace Panama's rugged landscape. Mostly unnavigable, many originate as swift highland streams, meander in valleys, and form coastal deltas.

The central part of the river is dammed by the Gatun Dam and forms Gatun Lake , an artificial lake that constitutes part of the Panama Canal. Once created, Gatun Lake was the largest man-made lake in the world, and the dam was the largest earth dam. The river drains northwest into the Caribbean. These Pacific-oriented rivers are longer and slower-running than those on the Caribbean side.

Their basins are also more extensive. The Caribbean coastline is marked by several good natural harbors. The more than San Blas Islands near Colombia, are strung out over more than kilometres 99 miles along the sheltered Caribbean coastline.

In total, the berths are over 2, metres 7, feet long with alongside depth of 15 metres 49 feet. The Port of Balboa has 18 super post- Panamax and Panamax quay cranes and 44 gantry cranes.

The Port of Balboa also contains 2, square metres 23, square feet of warehouse space. Panama has a tropical climate. Temperatures are uniformly high—as is the relative humidity—and there is little seasonal variation. Temperatures on the Pacific side of the isthmus are somewhat lower than on the Caribbean, and breezes tend to rise after dusk in most parts of the country.

Temperatures are markedly cooler in the higher parts of the mountain ranges, and frosts occur in the Cordillera de Talamanca in western Panama. Climatic regions are determined less on the basis of temperature than on rainfall , which varies regionally from less than 1, millimeters Almost all of the rain falls during the rainy season, which is usually from April to December, but varies in length from seven to nine months. In general, rainfall is much heavier on the Caribbean than on the Pacific side of the continental divide.

Although rainy-season thunderstorms are common, the country is outside the hurricane belt. Panama's tropical environment supports an abundance of plants. Forests dominate, interrupted in places by grasslands, scrub, and crops. Tree cover has been reduced by more than 50 percent since the s. Subsistence farming, widely practised from the northeastern jungles to the southwestern grasslands, consists largely of corn, bean, and tuber plots.

Mangrove swamps occur along parts of both coasts, with banana plantations occupying deltas near Costa Rica. In many places, a multi-canopied rain forest abuts the swamp on one side of the country and extends to the lower reaches of slopes on the other.

Panama's politics take place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Panama is both head of state and head of government , and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. National elections are universal and mandatory for all citizens 18 years and older.

National elections for the executive and legislative branches take place every five years. Members of the judicial branch justices are appointed by the head of state. Panama's National Assembly is elected by proportional representation in fixed electoral districts, so many smaller parties are represented.

Presidential elections requires a simple majority; out of the five last presidents only ex-president Ricardo Martinelli has managed to be elected with over 50 percent of the popular vote. Since the end of Manuel Noriega 's military dictatorship in , Panama has successfully completed five peaceful transfers of power to opposing political factions.

The political landscape is dominated by two major parties and many smaller parties, many of which are driven by individual leaders more than ideologies. He succeeded Mireya Moscoso , the widow of Arnulfo Arias.

Panama's most recent national elections occurred on May 4, , with incumbent vice-President Juan Carlos Varela declared the victor. The United States cooperates with the Panamanian government in promoting economic, political, security, and social development through US and international agencies.

Cultural ties between the two countries are strong, and many Panamanians go to the United States for higher education and advanced training. The Panamanian Public Forces are the national security forces of Panama. Panama is the second country in Latin America the other being Costa Rica to permanently abolish its standing army. Panama maintains armed police and security forces, and small air and maritime forces. They are tasked with law enforcement and can perform limited military actions.

Panama is divided into ten provinces with their respective local authorities governors. Each is divided into districts and corregimientos townships. Also, there are five Comarcas literally: On the Human Development Index , Panama ranked 60th in In recent years, Panama's economy has experienced a boom, with growth in real gross domestic product GDP averaging over Panama's economy has been among the fastest growing and best managed in Latin America.

The expansion project on the Panama Canal and the free trade agreement with the United States are expected [ who? Despite Panama's upper-middle per capita GDP , it remains a country of stark contrasts perpetuated by dramatic educational disparities.

Over 25 percent of Panama's population lived in poverty in and 3 percent of the population lives in extreme poverty, according to reports by the World Bank. Panama's economy, because of its key geographic location, is mainly based on a well-developed service sector, especially commerce, tourism, and trading.

The handover of the Canal and military installations by the United States has given rise to large construction projects. A project to build a third set of locks for the Panama Canal A was overwhelmingly approved in a referendum with low voter turnout, however on October 22, Transfer of control of the Canal to the Panamanian government completed in , after 85 years of US control.

Copper and gold deposits are being developed by foreign investors, to the dismay of some environmental groups, as all of the projects are located within protected areas. The banking sector employs more than 24, people directly. Financial intermediation contributed 9. Banking institutions report sound growth and solid financial earnings. However, Panama still cannot compare to the position held by Hong Kong or Singapore as financial centers in Asia. Panama still has a reputation worldwide for being a tax haven but has agreed to enhanced transparency, especially since the release in of the Panama Papers.

Significant progress has been made to improve full compliance with anti-money laundering recommendations. However efforts remain to be made, and the IMF repeatedly mentions the need to strengthen financial transparency and fiscal structure. Additionally there are more than 20 smaller airfields in the country. See list of airports in Panama. Panama's roads, traffic and transportation systems are generally safe, though night driving is difficult and in many cases, restricted by local authorities.

This usually occurs in informal settlements. Currently, Panama City has modern buses known as Metrobuses, [58] along with a Metro line. A diablo rojo is usually customized or painted with bright colors, usually depicting famous actors, politicians or singers.

Panama City's streets experience frequent traffic jams due to poor planning for now-extensive private vehicle ownership. Tourism in Panama is rapidly growing. These economic incentives have caused Panama to be regarded as a relatively good place to retire. The number of tourists from Europe grew by Most of the European tourists were Spaniards 14, , followed by Italians 13, , French 10, and British 8, There were from Germany, the most populous country in the European Union.

Europe has become one of the key markets to promote Panama as a tourist destination. This accounted for 9. Panama enacted Law No. The Panamanian currency is officially the balboa , fixed at a rate of 1: In practice, Panama is dollarized: US dollars are legal tender and used for all paper currency, while Panama has its own coinage. Because of the tie to US dollars, Panama has traditionally had low inflation.

The balboa replaced the Colombian peso in after Panama's independence. Balboa banknotes were printed in by President Arnulfo Arias. They were recalled several days later, giving them the name "The Seven Day Dollar". The notes were burned by the new government, but occasionally balboa notes can be found in collections. These were the only banknotes ever issued by Panama and US notes have circulated both before and since. Last year the zone accounted for 92 percent of Panama's exports and 64 percent of its imports, according to an analysis of figures from the Colon zone management and estimates of Panama's trade by the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean.

Panama's economy is also very much supported by the trade and export of coffee and other agricultural products. The treaty protects US investment and assists Panama in its efforts to develop its economy by creating conditions more favorable for US private investment and thereby strengthening the development of its private sector. Panama had an estimated population of 4,, in Panama's urban population exceeds 75 percent, making Panama's population the most urbanized in Central America.

In the population was 65 percent Mestizo mixed white, Native American , Ethnic groups in Panama include Mestizo people, who have a mix of European and native ancestry. Black Afro-Panamanians account for 15—20 percent of the population. Neighborhoods in Panama City that have large black populations include: The second wave of black people brought to Panama came from the Caribbean during the construction of the Panama Canal.

Panama also has a considerable Chinese and Indian India population brought to work on the canal during its construction. Panama is also home to a small Arab community that has mosques , practises Islam , as well as a Jewish community and many synagogues. The Amerindian population includes seven ethnic groups: Spanish is the official and dominant language. The Spanish spoken in Panama is known as Panamanian Spanish. About 93 percent of the population speak Spanish as their first language.

Many citizens who hold jobs at international levels, or at business corporations, speak both English and Spanish. Native languages, such as Ngäbere , are spoken throughout the country, mostly in their native territories. Aufforstungen in China und Ruanda.

Positive Entwicklungen sind hingegen in China und Ruanda zu verzeichnen. In China wurde ein zehnjähriges Aufforstungsprogramm gestartet. In den vergangenen Jahren nahm die Waldfläche dort dadurch um 4 Mio. Allein durch Brandrodungen werden weltweit Mio. Da Wälder C02 langfristig speichern, ist die Anpflanzung von Bäumen eine der wenigen Möglichkeiten, das Weltklima positiv zu beeinflussen.

Schweiz Waldbesitzer blitzen bei Volksabstimmung ab. Global Sägerundholz-Preis fällt erstmals seit Anfang Slowenien Hunderttausende Festmeter Sturmschaden.