SDAH- SPR LOCAL (34420) Route, Time Table, Schedule

 


For the city in Pakistan, see Gujrat City. Apart from lions, Indian leopards are also found in state. Deciduous forests are concentrated in the wetter southern and eastern hills. Retrieved 25 September Perfection We provide excellence and perfection in our duty towards our clients, and innovative solutions for management of waste.

Trending Topics


They do their accounts with fingers like ours and with our very writings. Gujarat was one of the twelve original subahs imperial top-level provinces established by Mughal padshah emperor Akbar the Great , with seat at Ahmedabad , bordering on Thatta Sindh , Ajmer, Malwa and later Ahmadnagar subahs. Aurangzeb , who was better known by his imperial title Alamgir "Conqueror of the World" , was born at Dahod , Gujarat, and was the sixth Mughal Emperor ruling with an iron fist over most of the Indian subcontinent.

He was the third son and sixth child of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal. At the time of his birth, his father, Shah Jahan, was then the Subahdar governor of Gujarat, and his grandfather, Jehangir , was the Mughal Emperor. Before he became emperor, Aurangzeb was made Subahdar of Gujarat subah as part of his training and was stationed at Ahmedabad. During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to more than 3.

Aurangzeb had great love for his place of birth. In , he wrote a letter to his eldest son, Muhammad Azam Shah , asking him to be kind and considerate to the people of Dahod as it was his birthplace. Muhammad Azam was then the Subedar governor of Gujarat. In his letter, Aurangzeb wrote: My son of exalted rank, the town of Dahod, one of the dependencies of Gujarat, is the birthplace of this sinner.

Please consider a regard for the inhabitants of that town as incumbent on you. When the cracks had started to develop in the edifice of the Mughal empire in the midth century, the Marathas were consolidating their power in the west, Chatrapati Shivaji , the great Maratha ruler, attacked Surat in southern Gujarat twice first in and again in However, before the Maratha inroads into Gujarat, the Europeans had made their presence felt, with the Portuguese leading them, followed by the Dutch and the English.

The Peshwas had established their sovereignty over parts of Gujarat and collected taxes and tributes through their representatives.

Damaji Gaekwad and Kadam Bande divided the Peshwa's territory between them, [80] with Damaji establishing the sway of Gaekwad over Gujarat and made Baroda present day Vadodara in southern Gujarat his capital. The ensuing internecine war among the Marathas was fully exploited by the British, who interfered in the affairs of both Gaekwads and the Peshwas. In Saurashtra , as elsewhere, the Marathas were met with resistance. In the s, the Dutch, French, English and Portuguese all established bases along the western coast of the region.

Portugal was the first European power to arrive in Gujarat, and after the Battle of Diu , acquired several enclaves along the Gujarati coast, including Daman and Diu as well as Dadra and Nagar Haveli. These enclaves were administered by Portuguese India under a single union territory for over years, only to be later incorporated into the Republic of India on 19 December by military conquest. The state was an early point of contact with the west, and the first British commercial outpost in India was in Gujarat.

I have never seen men of wit so fine and polished as are these Indians: They are unwilling indeed to adopt the manners and customs of the Portuguese ; yet do they regularly learn their manufactures and workmanship, being all very curious and desirous of learning. In fact the Portuguese take and learn more from them than they from the Portuguese. Later in the 17th century, Gujarat came under control of the Hindu Maratha Empire that rose defeating the Muslim Mughals and who dominated the politics of India.

Pilaji Gaekwad , first ruler of Gaekwad dynasty , established the control over Baroda and other parts of Gujarat. Many local rulers, notably the Rajput Maratha Gaekwad Maharajas of Baroda Vadodara , made a separate peace with the British and acknowledged British sovereignty in return for retaining local self-rule.

An epidemic outbreak in killed half the population of Gujarat. Gujarat was placed under the political authority of the Bombay Presidency , with the exception of Baroda state , which had a direct relationship with the Governor-General of India. From to , most of present-day Gujarat, including Kathiawar , Kutch and northern and eastern Gujarat were divided into hundreds of princely states , but several districts in central and southern Gujarat, namely Ahmedabad , Broach Bharuch , Kaira Kheda , Panchmahal and Surat , were governed directly by British officials.

After Indian independence and the partition of India in , the new Indian government grouped the former princely states of Gujarat into three larger units; Saurashtra , which included the former princely states on the Kathiawad peninsula, Kutch , and Bombay state , which included the former British districts of Bombay Presidency together with most of Baroda state and the other former princely states of eastern Gujarat.

The new state had a mostly Gujarati-speaking north and a Marathi-speaking south. Agitation by Gujarati nationalists, the Mahagujarat Movement , and Marathi nationalists, the Samyukta Maharashtra , for their own states led to the split of Bombay state on linguistic lines; on 1 May , it became the new states of Gujarat and Maharashtra.

In riots , at least died and properties worth millions were destroyed. The first capital of Gujarat was Ahmedabad ; the capital was moved to Gandhinagar in Nav Nirman Andolan was a socio-political movement of It was a students' and middle-class people's movement against economic crisis and corruption in public life. This was the first and last successful agitation after the Independence of India that ousted an elected government. The Morvi dam failure , in , resulted in the death of thousands of people and large economic loss.

The protests witnessed violent clashes between people belonging to various castes. In February , the Godhra train burning lead to statewide riots , resulting in the deaths of people — Muslims and Hindus, and hundreds missing still unaccounted for.

National Security Guards intervented to end siege killing both terrorists. Gujarat borders Pakistan 's Tharparkar , Badin and Thatta districts of Sindh province to the northwest, is bounded by the Arabian Sea to the southwest, the state of Rajasthan to the northeast, Madhya Pradesh to the east, and by Maharashtra, Union territories of Diu , Daman , Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the south.

Historically, the north was known as Anarta , the Kathiawar peninsula, "Saurastra", and the south as "Lata". The capital, Gandhinagar is a planned city. The Sabarmati is the largest river in Gujarat followed by the Tapi , although the Narmada covers the longest distance in its passage through the state. It is one of only three rivers in peninsular India that run from east to west — the others being the Tapi River and the Mahi River.

A riverfront project has been built on the Sabarmati River. The Rann of Kutch is a seasonally marshy saline clay desert located in the Thar Desert biogeographic region in between the province of Sindh and the state of Gujarat.

Situated 8 kilometres 5. The population of Gujarat was 60,,, according to the census data. As per the census of , the state has a sex ratio of girls for every boys, one of the lowest ranked 24 amongst the 29 states in India.

While Gujarati speakers constitute a majority of Gujarat's population, the metropolitan areas of Ahmedabad and Surat are cosmopolitan, with numerous other ethnic and language groups. Marwaris compose large minorities of economic migrants; smaller communities of people from the other states of India has also migrated to Gujarat for employment.

Religion in Gujarat []. According to census, the religious makeup in Gujarat was A major part of the Hindu population follow Vaishnavism. Gujarat has the third-largest population of Jains in India, following Maharashtra and Rajasthan. The Zoroastrians, also known in India as Parsi and Irani , are believed to have migrated to Gujarat to escape adverse conditions in Persia and maintain their traditions.

They have also played an instrumental role in economic development, with several of the best-known business conglomerates of India run by Parsi-Zoroastrians, including the Tata , Godrej , and Wadia families. There is a small Jewish community centred around Magen Abraham Synagogue.

Hathisingh Jain Temple , Ahmedabad. Magen Abraham Jewish Synagogue. Jama Masjid Friday Mosque, 15th century , Ahmedabad. Modhera Sun Temple built by Bhimdev I. Languages of Gujarat [3] []. It is native to the Indian state of Gujarat, and is its main language, as well as of the adjacent union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.

About 49 million people speak Gujarati, making it the 26th most-spoken native language in the world. According to the 52nd report of the commissioner for linguistic minorities under Ministry of Minority Affairs , majority of the population speak Gujarati with People from the Kutch region of Gujarat also speak in the Kutchi mother tongue, and to a great extent appreciate Sindhi as well. Memoni is the mother tongue of Kathiawar and Sindhi Memons, most of them who are exclusively Muslims.

A sizeable proportion of Gujarati Muslims are bilingual in both languages; Islamic academic institutions Darul Uloom place a high prestige on learning Urdu and Arabic , with students' memorising the Quran and ahadith , and emphasising the oral and literary importance of mastering these languages as a compulsory rite of religion.

Other native languages spoken in low proportions are Bhili and Gamit , which are spoken exclusively among the tribals. Apart from this, English, Marwari , Sindhi , Punjabi , Tamil , Kannada , Telugu , Bengali , Odia , Malayalam , Marathi and others are spoken by a considerable number of economic migrants who have flocked to the state in recent decades seeking employment and higher standards of living.

The languages taught in schools under the three-language formula are: In previous years, Sindhi was also taught as a first language, [] but this has changed. Gujarat has 33 districts and Talukas. They can broadly be defined into 4 regions. Gujarat is governed by a Legislative Assembly of members. Members of the Legislative Assembly are elected on the basis of adult suffrage from one of constituencies, of which 13 are reserved for scheduled castes and 27 for scheduled tribes.

The term of office for a member of the Legislative Assembly is five years. The Legislative Assembly elects a speaker who presides over the meetings of the legislature.

A governor is appointed by the President of India , and is to address the state legislature after every general election and the commencement of each year's first session of the Legislative Assembly. The leader of the majority party or coalition in the legislature Chief Minister or his or her designee acts as the Leader of the Legislative Assembly.

The administration of the state is led by the Chief Minister. Congress continued to govern Gujarat after the state's creation in During and after India's State of Emergency of —, public support for the INC eroded, but it continued to hold government until with brief rule of nine months by Janata Morcha.

His government lasted only two years. BJP again won election in with clear majority. In , following the loss of two assembly seats in by-elections, Keshubhai Patel resigned and yielded power to Narendra Modi. During the British Raj, Gujarati businesses served to play a major role to enrich the economy of Karachi and Mumbai.

Industrial products include cement and petrol. The world's largest shipbreaking yard is in Gujarat near Bhavnagar at Alang. More than , internet users and all villages are connected with broadband internet. Gujarat records highest decadal agricultural growth rate of Legatum Institute's Global Prosperity Index has recognised Gujarat as the highest-scoring amongst all states of India on matters of social capital. In , Forbes list of the world's fastest growing cities included Ahmedabad at number 3 after Chengdu and Chongqing from China.

Jamnagar is the hub for manufacturing brass parts. It is one of India's most prosperous states, having a per-capita GDP significantly above India's average. Kalol , Khambhat , and Ankleshwar are today known for their oil and natural gas production. Dhuvaran has a thermal power station, which uses coal, oil, and gas. Surat , a city by the Gulf of Khambhat , is a hub of the global diamond trade. Gujarat is one of the first few states in India to have encouraged private-sector investment, some of which are already in operation.

Gujarat is state with surplus electricity. Recently, the Gujarat Government has upgraded its installed capacity of 13, megawatts MW by adding another 3, MW. Gujarat sold surplus power to 12 states: By , Gujarat plans on producing MW of energy by solar power. The total geographical area of Gujarat is 19,, hectares, of which crops take up 10,, hectares.

This success was lauded by former President of India, Dr. The strengths of Gujarat's agricultural success have been attributed to diversified crops and cropping patters; climatic diversity 8 climatic zones for agriculture ; the existence of 4 agricultural universities in the state, which promote research in agricultural efficiency and sustainability; [] co-operatives; adoption of hi-tech agriculture such as tissue culture, green houses and shed-net houses; agriculture export zones; strong marketing infrastructure, which includes cold storages, processing units, logistic hubs and consultancy facilities.

Gujarat is the main producer of tobacco, cotton, and groundnuts in India. Other major food crops produced are rice, wheat, jowar, bajra , maize, tur , and gram. The state has an agricultural economy; the total crop area amounts to more than one-half of the total land area. Animal husbandry and dairying have played vital roles in the rural economy of Gujarat. Dairy farming, primarily concerned with milk production, functions on a co-operative basis and has more than a million members.

Gujarat is the largest producer of milk in India. The Amul milk co-operative federation is well known all over India, and it is Asia's biggest dairy. As per the results of livestock census , there were In the estimates of the survey of major livestock products, during the year —03, the Gujarat produced 6. Gujarat also contributes inputs to the textiles, oil, and soap industries, amongst others. The adoption of cooperatives in Gujarat is widely attributed to much of the success in the agricultural sector, particularly sugar and dairy cooperatives.

Cooperative farming has been a component of India's strategy for agricultural development since Whilst the success of these was mixed throughout the country, their positive impact on the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat have been the most significant. In alone, the two states had more registered co-operatives than any other region in the country.

Out of these, the agricultural cooperatives have received much attention. Many have focused on subsidies and credit to farmers and rather than collective gathering, they have focused on facilitating collective processing and marketing of produce.

However, whilst they have led to increased productivity, their effect on equity in the region has been questioned, because membership in agricultural co-operatives has tended to favour landowners whilst limiting the entry of landless agricultural labourers. Amul Was formed as a dairy cooperative in , [] in the city of Anand, Gujarat. GCMMF , is jointly owned by around 2. Amul has been seen as one of the best examples of cooperative achievement and success in a developing economy and The Amul pattern of growth has been taken as a model for rural development, particularly in the agricultural sector of developing economies.

The company stirred the White Revolution of India also known as Operation Flood , the world's biggest dairy development program, and made the milk-deficient nation of India the largest milk producer in the world, in As a result, Gujarat has faced problems with groundwater depletion, especially after demand for water went up in the s.

As access to electricity in rural areas increased, subermersible electric pumps became more popular in the s and s. However, the Gujarat Electricity Board switched to flat tariff rates linked to the horsepower of pumps, which increased tubewell irrigation again and decreased the use of electric pumps.

By the s, groundwater abstraction rates exceeded groundwater recharge rate in many districts, whilst only Groundwater maintenance and preventing unnecessary loss of the available water supplies is now an issue faced by the state. However, its impact on communities who were displaced is still a contested issue. Recently, in , Gujarat began an experiment to reduce water loss due to evaporation in canals and to increase sustainability in the area by constructing solar panels over the canals.

A one megawatt MW solar power project set up at Chandrasan, Gujarat uses solar panels fixed over a metre stretch of an irrigation canal. Unlike many solar power projects, this one does not take up large amounts of land since the panels are constructed over the canals, and not on additional land. This results in lower upfront costs since land does not need to be acquired, cleared or modified to set up the panels. The Chandrasan project is projected to save 9 million litres of water per year. The Government of Gujarat, to improve soil management and introduce farmers to new technology, started on a project which involved giving every farmer a Soil Health Card.

This acts like a ration card, providing permanent identification for the status of cultivated land, as well as farmers' names, account numbers, survey numbers, soil fertility status and general fertiliser dose. Assistance and advice for this project was given by local agricultural universities and crop and soil-specific data was added to the database. This allows the soil test data to be interpreted and recommendations or adjustments made in terms of fertiliser requirements, which are also added to the database.

Gujarat is home to the Gujarati people. It was also the home of Mahatma Gandhi , a worldwide figure for peaceful struggle against tyranny, and Vallabhbhai Patel , a founding father of the republic of India. Gujarati literature 's history may be traced to AD. Saraswatichandra is a landmark novel by Govardhanram Tripathi. A notable contribution to Gujarati language literature came from the Swaminarayan paramhanso, like Bramhanand, Premanand, with prose like Vachanamrut and poetry in the form of bhajans.

Gujarati theatre owes a lot to Bhavai. Bhavai is a folk musical performance of stage plays. Dayro gathering involves singing and conversation reflecting on human nature. Gujarati food is primarily vegetarian. The typical Gujarati thali consists of rotli or bhakhari or thepala or rotlo , dal or kadhi , khichdi , Bhat and shak.

Athanu Indian pickle and chhundo are used as condiments. The four major regions of Gujarat all bring their own styles to Gujarati food. Many Gujarati dishes are distinctively sweet, salty, and spicy at the same time. In Saurashtra region , chhash buttermilk is believed to be a must-have in their daily food. The Gujarati film industry dates back to , when the first Gujarati film, Narsinh Mehta , was released.

The industry is revived in recent times. The film industry has produced more than one thousand films since its inception. Gujarati folk music, known as Sugam Sangeet , is a hereditary profession of the Barot , Gadhvi and Charan communities. The omnipresent instruments in Gujarati folk music include wind instruments, such as turi , bungal , and pava , string instruments , such as the ravan hattho , ektaro , and jantar and percussion instruments, such as the manjira and zanz pot drum.

The folk traditions of Gujarat include bhavai and raas - garba. Bhavai is a folk theatre; it is partly entertainment and partly ritual, and is dedicated to Amba. The raas-garba is a folk dance done as a celebration of Navratri by Gujarati people.

The folk costume of this dance is chaniya choli for women and kedia for men. Different styles and steps of garba include dodhiyu , simple five, simple seven, popatiyu , trikoniya hand movement which forms an imagery triangle , lehree , tran taali , butterfly, hudo , two claps and many more Sheri garba is one of the oldest form of garba where all the ladies wear red patola sari and sing along while dancing. It is a very graceful form of garba. In Gujarat, from December through to Makar Sankranti , people start enjoying kite flying.

Undhiyu , a special dish made of various vegetables, is a must-have of Gujarati people on Makar Sankranti. Surat is especially well known for the strong string which is made by applying glass powder on the row thread to provide it a cutting edge.

Due to close proximity to the Arabian Sea, Gujarat has developed a mercantile ethos which maintained a cultural tradition of seafaring , long-distance trade, and overseas contacts with the outside world since ancient times, and the diffusion of culture through Gujarati diaspora was a logical outcome of such a tradition. During the pre-modern period, various European sources have observed that these merchants formed diaspora communities outside of Gujarat, and in many parts of the world, such as the Persian Gulf , Middle East, Horn of Africa , Hong Kong and Indonesia [] long before the internal rise of the Maratha Dynasty, and the British Raj colonial occupation.

This tradition was followed by other Gujaratis. Many Indians had migrated to Indonesia , most of them being Gujaratis. King Aji Saka, who is said to have come to Java in Indonesia in year 1 of the Saka calendar, is believed by some to be a king of Gujarat.

Gujarat has four national parks and 21 sanctuaries. It is the only home of Asiatic lions and outside Africa , is the only present natural habitat of lions. Gir Forest National Park in the southwest part of the state covers part of the lions' habitat.

Apart from lions, Indian leopards are also found in state. They are spread across the large plains of Saurashtra and the mountains of South Gujarat. Apart from this Gir hills, Barda, Jessore, Chotila , etc. Girnar is the tallest peak and Saputara is the only hill-station in the state. In the early s, palaeontologists found dinosaur bones and fossils of at least 13 species Balasinor in Kheda District. Gujarat is one of the most popular states in India for tourism with an annual footfall of Many structures in the state are built in this fashion.

Amitabh Bachchan is currently the brand ambassador of Gujarat Tourism. The 'Khushboo Gujarat Ki' campaign by Bollywood megastar Amitabh Bachchan has enhanced tourism in Gujarat by 14 per cent, twice that of national growth rate. The Kirti Mandir, Porbandar , Sabarmati Ashram , and Kaba Gandhi No Delo are museums related to Mahatma Gandhi , the former being the place of his birth and the latter two where he lived in his lifetime.

Kaba Gandhi No Delo in Rajkot exhibits part of a rare collection of photographs relating to the life of Mahatma Gandhi. Sabarmati Ashram is the place where Gandhi initiated the Dandi March. The Calico Museum of Textiles is managed by the Sarabhai Foundation and is one of the most popular tourist spots in Ahmedabad. The Lakhota Museum at Jamnagar is a palace transformed into museum, which was residence of the Jadeja Rajputs. The collection of the museum includes artefacts spanning from 9th to 18th centuries, pottery from medieval villages nearby and the skeleton of a whale.

Religious sites play a major part in the tourism of Gujarat. Somnath is the first amongst twelve Jyotirlingas , and is mentioned in the Rigveda. The Palitana temples of Jainism on Mount Shatrunjaya , Palitana are considered the holiest of all pilgrimage places by the Svetambara and Digambara Jain community.

The Modhra Dance Festival is a festival for classical dance, arranged by the Government of Gujarat 's Cultural Department , to promote tourism in state and to keep traditions and culture alive. The Ambaji Fair is held in the Hindu month of Bhadrapad around August—September at Ambaji, during a time which is particularly suitable for farmers, when the busy monsoon season is about to end.

The walk from the bus station to the temple is less than one kilometre, under a roofed walkway. The Bhadrapad fair is held in the centre of the Ambaji village just outside the temple premises. The village is visited by the largest number of sanghas pilgrim groups during the fair.

Many of them go there on foot, which is particularly enriching as it happens immediately after the monsoon, when the landscape is rich with greenery, streams are full of sparkling water and the air is fresh. Not only Hindus, but some devout Jains and Parsis also attend the functions, whilst some Muslims attend the fair for trade. The Tarnetar Fair is held during the first week of Bhadrapad , September—October according to Gregorian calendar , and mostly serves as a place to find a suitable bride for tribal people from Gujarat.

The region is believed to be the place where Arjuna took up the difficult task of piercing the eye of a fish, rotating at the end of a pole, by looking at its reflection in the pond water, to marry Draupadi. The Government of Gujarat has banned alcohol since Somnath Temple , Veraval.

Vijay Vilas Palace , Mandvi , Kutch. Gujarat has seventeen airports. The Board is headed by the Chief Minister. Vadodara Railway Station is the busiest railway station in Gujarat and the fourth busiest railway station in India. Indian Railways is planning Delhi—Mumbai dedicated rail freight route passing through the state.

It is expected to complete by December The construction started on 14 March Kandla Port is one of the largest ports serving Western India. The state also has Ro-Ro ferry service. It is a public transport corporation providing bus services and public transit within Gujarat and to the other states in India. Apart from this, the GSRTC provides special bus services for festivals, industrial zones, schools, colleges and pilgrim places also buses are given on contract basis to the public for certain special occasions.

Auto rickshaws are common mode of transport in Gujarat. The Government of Gujarat is promoting bicycles to reduce pollution by the way of initiative taken by free cycle rides for commuters.. Gujarat has 13 state universities and four agricultural universities. The premier management college, Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad ranks the best in India and among the best management universities in the world. IRMA is a unique institution in the sense that it provides professional education to train managers for rural management.

It is the only one of its kind in all Asia. The National Institute of Design NID in Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar is internationally acclaimed as one of the foremost multi-disciplinary institutions in the field of design education and research.

In the emerging area of legal education, a premier institution Gujarat National Law University was founded in the capital city Gandhinagar which started imparting education from the year and is ranked in top institutions in the country. Originally known as the Baroda College of Science established , it became a university in after the independence of the country and later renamed after its benefactor Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III, the former ruler of Baroda State.

Vikram Sarabhai , a renowned scientist, industrialist, and visionary Gujarati, played an important role in it. He also founded Physical Research Laboratory , a research institute encompasses Astrophysics, Solar System, and cosmic radiation. He also envisioned Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad , one of the internationally reputed management research institute that is located in Gujarat's commercial capital Ahmedabad and is the top ranked management institutes in the country.

It was inaugurated by Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru , the first Prime Minister of India on 10 April , with a view to carry out research on marine salt, and salt from inland lakes and sub-soil brine.

It is working on reverse osmosis , electro membrane process, salt and marine chemicals, analytical science, marine biotechnology, and other related fields. Gujarat Science City , [] is a government initiative to draw more students towards education in science, which hosts India's first IMAX 3D theatre, an energy park, a hall of science, an amphitheatre , and dancing musical fountains amongst others.

School of Business Management is ranked sixth in financial management. Shanti Business School in Ahmedabad is a business school offering post graduate diploma in Management through corporate citizenship initiative.

ISR campus is at Raisan, Gandhinagar, in a sprawling and picturesque [ clarification needed ] area on the banks of Sabarmati river. Aims and objectives include assigning optimum seismic factors for buildings in different regions and long-term assessment of potential. The ISR is the only institute in India fully dedicated to seismological research and is planned to be developed into a premier international institute in few years time. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the state in India. For the city in Pakistan, see Gujrat City. For other uses, see Gujrat. It is one of the finest examples of stepwell architecture of Gujarat. Rani ki vav 11th century CE. Climate of Gujarat and List of rivers of Gujarat. Chief Ministers of Gujarat.

Largest cities or towns in Gujarat As of the Census. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards.

The discussion page may contain suggestions. List of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries of Gujarat, India. Railway stations in Gujarat. List of institutions of higher education in Gujarat. Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. List of people from Gujarat. India portal Gujarat portal.

Retrieved 19 November Economic and Statistical Organization, Government of Punjab. Retrieved 17 February Archived from the original PDF on 8 July Retrieved 6 November Language Policy and Linguistic Minorities in India: Wheat, millet, rice, and sorghum are the primary food crops, with rice production being concentrated in the wetter areas.

Principal cash crops include cotton, oilseeds especially peanuts [groundnuts] , tobacco, and sugarcane. Commercial dairying is also important. Gujarat is rich in minerals, including limestone , manganese , gypsum , calcite , and bauxite. The state also has deposits of lignite , quartz sand, agate , and feldspar. In addition, Gujarat produces petroleum and natural gas.

The state draws its electricity from a variety of sources. There also are a number of wind farms scattered across the state. There is a large oil refinery at Koyali near Vadodara , which supports a nearby petrochemical industry.

Pharmaceutical production is concentrated at Vadodara , Ahmadabad , and Valsad. Small-scale, largely agriculture-based manufacturing is located in the Kathiawar Peninsula. Vegetable oil, cotton textiles, and cement are among the products of those industries. Moreover, the Gandhian approach to labour problems—strict reliance on the truth, nonviolence, settlement by arbitration, minimal demands, and the use of the strike only as a last resort—has had a great impact in the field of industrial relations in Gujarat, which has remained relatively free from labour unrest.

Kandla is a major international shipping terminal. There is air service both within the state and to major Indian cities outside Gujarat.

The governmental structure of Gujarat, like that of most Indian states, is defined by the national constitution of The governor is the chief executive and is appointed by the president of India.

The Council of Ministers, led by the chief minister head of government , aids and advises the governor. The High Court is the highest judicial authority in the state. Various lower courts—including the city courts, the courts of district and sessions judges, and the courts of civil judges—operate within each administrative district.

The state is divided into more than two dozen administrative districts. The revenue and general administration of each district is overseen by the district collector, who also functions as the district magistrate for the maintenance of law and order.

With a view toward involving the people in local government, elected governing councils panchayat s were introduced at the village level in Other services focus on reproductive and family health and on health education. Primary health centres offer medical services throughout the state.

Public and private hospitals as well as medical colleges offer more-specialized services, primarily in the larger urban areas. Various state institutions address the welfare needs of children, women, people with disabilities, and senior citizens. Special programs also are available to assist those who belong to communities that, by tradition, have been socially, economically, and educationally disadvantaged.

Primary schooling for all children between the ages of 7 and 11 is available in most villages with or more inhabitants. Special schools serve children in the rural tribal regions.

Secondary schools are spread throughout the state in larger villages, towns, and urban areas. Gujarat has a number of important institutions of higher education. In addition to its universities and research centres, Gujarat has numerous smaller tertiary institutions e. Much of the culture of Gujarat reflects the mythology surrounding the Hindu deity Krishna an incarnation of the god Vishnu , as transmitted in the Puranas , a class of Hindu sacred literature.

The older rasnritya and raslila dance traditions honouring Krishna find their contemporary manifestation in the popular dance called garba. The dance is performed primarily at the Navratri festival September—October , which honours the divine feminine; dancers move in a circle, singing and keeping time by clapping their hands.

Also commonly performed at Navratri is bhavai , a type of popular, rural, comic drama that depicts various aspects of rural life.

All of the roles in bhavai —both male and female—are played by men. Shaivism Shivaism , the cult of the Hindu god Shiva , has long flourished in Gujarat; so too has Vaishnavism the worship of Vishnu , from which have emerged not only the cult of bhakti devotion but also a rich repertoire of verse and song. Notable Vaishnava saints, poets, and musicians include Narsinh or Narasimha Mehta, who composed pada s verses in the 15th century; Mira Bai , a 16th-century Rajput princess who renounced her royal home and composed bhajan s devotional songs ; Premanand, an 18th-century poet and writer; and Dayaram, an 18th-century composer of songs who popularized the bhakti cult.

In the Jain tradition, writings of the prolific 12th-century author Hemacandra continue to be held in high regard. Hemacandra produced numerous textbooks on various aspects of Indian philosophy , as well as grammatical analyses of Sanskrit and Prakrit. He also wrote an epic history of the world from a Jain perspective as well as a number of poems. The ancient architectural style of Gujarat, known for its luxuriousness and intricacy, is preserved in monuments and temples such as those in Somnath and Dwarka in the southwestern part of the state; Modhera in the north; and Than, Ghumli near Porbandar , the Girnar Hills , and Palitana in the Kathiawar Peninsula.

Under Muslim rule, a distinctive architectural style that blended Muslim and Hindu elements developed. That style is exemplified by the 15th- and 16th-century mosques and tombs of Ahmadabad. Gujarat has an especially large number of the stepwells that have survived. In addition to its architecture, Gujarat is widely recognized for its highly skilled craftwork. Notable products include the jari gold and silver embroidery of Surat , the bandhani -work using a tie-dyeing technique fabrics of Jamnagar , and the patola silk saris garments worn by Indian women of Patan, in northern Gujarat.

Also from the northern region, the toys of Idar, the perfumes of Palanpur , and the hand-loomed products of Kanodar are well known. Ahmadabad and Surat are renowned for their decorative woodwork depicting miniature temples and mythological figures. Often coterminous with castes—and largely autonomous—the guilds have in the past solved disputes, acted as channels of philanthropy, and encouraged arts and other cultural activities. Early human settlement in Gujarat has been traced to hundreds of thousands of years ago—to the Stone Age —in the valleys of the Sabarmati and Mahi rivers in the eastern part of the state.

The emergence of a historical record is linked with the spread of the Indus Harappan civilization , which flourished in the 3rd and 2nd millennia bce. The known history of Gujarat begins with the Mauryan dynasty , which had extended its rule over the area by the 3rd century bce , as indicated by the edicts of the emperor Ashoka c.

After the fall of the Mauryan empire, Gujarat came under the rule of the Shakas Scythians , or western Kshatrapas — ce. The greatest of the Shaka leaders, Mahakshatrapa Rudradaman, established his sway over Saurashtra a region roughly corresponding to the Kathiawar Peninsula and Kachchh, as well as over the neighbouring province of Malwa and other areas in what are now the states of Madhya Pradesh Rajasthan.

From the late 4th to the late 5th century, Gujarat formed a part of the Gupta empire until the Guptas were succeeded by the Maitraka dynasty of the kingdom of Valabhi , which ruled over Gujarat and Malwa for three centuries. The capital, Valabhipura near the eastern coast of the Kathiawar Peninsula , was a great centre of Buddhist , Vedic , and Jain learning. The Maitraka dynasty was succeeded by the Gurjara-Pratiharas the imperial Gurjaras of Kannauj , who ruled during the 8th and 9th centuries; they, in turn, were followed shortly afterward by the Solanki dynasty.

The boundaries of Gujarat reached their farthest limits during the reign of the Solankis, when remarkable progress was made in the economic and cultural fields. Siddharaja Jayasimha and Kumarapala are the best-known Solanki kings. By the end of the 16th century, Gujarat was ruled by the Mughals.

Their control of the region lasted until the midth century, when the Marathas overran the state. Gujarat came under the administration of the British East India Company in After the Indian Mutiny of —58, the area became a province of the British crown and was divided into Gujarat province, with an area of about 10, square miles 26, square km , and numerous native states including Saurashtra and Kachchh.

With Indian independence in , the province of Gujarat was included in Bombay state; in the province was enlarged to include Kachchh and Saurashtra. In April fighting broke out between India and Pakistan in the Rann of Kachchh , an area that had long been in dispute between the two countries. A cease-fire came into force on July 1, and the dispute was submitted to arbitration by an international tribunal.

Gujarat was again gripped by violence in Triggered by proposed changes in the concessions reserved for the Scheduled Castes, the disturbances soon escalated into riots between Muslims and Hindus that continued for five months. In January the state was rocked by a devastating earthquake , which had its epicentre at Bhuj in the Kachchh district.

About a year later, in February , Gujarat experienced a resurgence of large-scale rioting and Muslim-Hindu communal violence that left some 1, people dead, most of them Muslims. In , after the BJP had won a majority of seats in the Lok Sabha lower chamber of the Indian parliament , Modi was sworn in as prime minister of India. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.

Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article.