Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. The first commercially viable oil discovery was made at Bab in ExxonMobil has a history of lobbying for climate change denial and against the scientific consensus that global warming is caused by the burning of fossil fuels. Chemistry and Technology 2, illustrated, revised ed.
Customers also shopped for
Frequently an endnote will include a reference to an appendix, requiring lots of searching within the book. Kindle's method of saving your place is such that that searching can cause you to lose your place in the mail text. I bought this for my father who worked for the Abu Dhabi Petroleum Company from to , he has enjoyed reading it and believes some of the central characters were still working there when he was there.
It is difficult to buy him Christmas presents but he has really enjoyed this one. I was a child when my father worked there and started boarding school but I remember the contrast between the heavily industrialized oil industry and the fishing and pearl concerns struggling along side. One person found this helpful. Heard's very readable book chronicles the early exploration and negotiations for oil concessions in the s before oil was discovered.
At the time, the UAE was made up of seven sheikhdoms. One of the poorest regions in the world, its peoples suffered from eye and lung diseases, malaria, poor nutrition, isolation, and oppressive summer heat. The rulers of the sheikhdoms had little income, a precarious hold over their territory, and some of them walked barefoot. The ruling families of Abu Dhabi and Dubai are among the wealthiest in the world and the country's per capita income is within the world's top ten.
The oil bonanza was responsible for this sudden extractive wealth. But in the s, geologists doubted that the territory held much promise for oil, and foreign oil companies concentrated on Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, and Qatar. A few British executives and a New Zealander working for Petroleum Concessions Limited were charged with negotiating exploration concessions from the sheikhs, with inducements that included stingy fees and gifts of a Ford car and lorry, and strict prohibitions from dealing with a large California company.
If a sheikh were recalcitrant, British authorities threatened to prohibit them from traveling outside their realm. One of the heroes is a Brit who left home at 13, made his way to the Arabian Gulf, spoke fluent Arabic, converted to Islam, and wore native dress. Another is the Sheikh of Abu Dhabi, whose vision of the rights of sovereignty and his stubborn insistence on fair dealings with the foreign company were dismissed as preposterous by the British negotiators.
Despite its formidable length, this fascinating book is a page turner. The reader imagines that Heard is standing before you telling the story of the twists and turns of a confrontation between pre-WWII modernity and tradition.
From company documents and his own long residence in the country, he provides a descriptions of emirati society, economics, and politics in the s, b official behavior of His Majesty Government supervising Trucial Coast affairs, c the challenges of identifying oil formations with contemporary geological techniques and hostile hinterland tribes, d the tortuous negotiations with the rulers of four emirates, and e internal conflict between British executives charged with obtaining options and concessions.
New companies are poised to bid aggressively to operate in the UAE, with the balance power this time heavily in Emirati hands. The 81 appendices alone make the book a significant contribution to the history of the Arabian Gulf.
Heard has converted these internal memos and letters and his own knowledge and writing skills into an entertaining adventure story with heroes, intrigue, and unexpected denouements. Executive compensation has now been tied to key performance indicators and commercial benchmarks, especially operating cost per barrel. Al Jaber's plan will be implemented over several years. It is a part of the government's plan for economic diversification embodied in Economic Vision The Supreme Petroleum Council is the highest governing body of oil, gas, and similar industry related activities in the Abu Dhabi.
The Council was formed in As a fully integrated oil and gas company, ADNOC operations fulfill every aspect of process in the petroleum industry. These process are then divided among multiple subsidiaries.
The company was originally known as Petroleum Development Trucial Coast. It received its first concession on 11 January but did not begin geological operations until after World War II. The first commercially viable oil discovery was made at Bab in In , the company was renamed the Abu Dhabi Petroleum Company.
Exports began to flow from the Jebel Dhanna terminal on 14 December With reorganisation, and the expiry of the 65 year old ADMA concessions, the offshore concessions are now split by fields. It drills for oil both onshore and offshore in Abu Dhabi.
Al Dhafra Petroleum is an emerging upstream company that is focused on unlocking undeveloped oil and gas potential in the UAE. Other shareholders are Shell Abu Dhabi with 15 percent equity, Total also with 15 percent, and Partex with 2 percent.
On a daily basis the project is also expected to produce million cubic feet of natural gas, 33, barrels of condensates, and thousands of tons of natural gas liquids , and thousands of tons of sulphur granules. The Project is located in the Shah gas field about kilometers west of Abu Dhabi. Half of this field's production will be used to service domestic demand in the UAE and minimize the need for gas imports.
BP also had no objection to lifting the ban. In January , Federal climate investigations of ExxonMobil were considered less likely under the new Trump administration. ExxonMobil representatives said that because Infineum was based in Europe and the transactions did not involve any U. In April , Donald Trump 's administration denied a request from ExxonMobil to allow it to resume oil drilling in Russia. Representative Adam Schiff D-California said that the "Treasury Department should reject any waiver from sanctions which would allow Exxon Mobile or any other company to resume business with prohibited Russian entities.
In July , ExxonMobil filed a lawsuit against the Trump administration challenging the finding that the company violated sanctions imposed on Russia. William Holbrook, a company spokesman, said that the ExxonMobil had followed "clear guidance from the White House and Treasury Department when its representatives signed [in May ] documents involving ongoing oil and gas activities in Russia with Rosneft".
ExxonMobil is organized functionally into a number of global operating divisions. It also owns hundreds of smaller subsidiaries such as Imperial Oil Limited All natural gas activities are conducted by its subsidiary, XTO Energy. As of December 31, , ExxonMobil owned In Canada, the company holds 5. In Argentina, ExxonMobil holds 0. In Africa, upstream operations are concentrated in Angola where it owns 0.
Together with Rosneft , it has developed In Australia, ExxonMobil held 1. In Papua New Guinea, it holds 1. ExxonMobil markets products around the world under the brands of Exxon , Mobil , and Esso. Exxon is the primary brand in the rest of the United States, with the highest concentration of retail outlets located in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Texas and in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern states.
Esso is ExxonMobil's primary gasoline brand worldwide except in Australia and New Zealand, where the Mobil brand is used exclusively. In Colombia, both the Esso and Mobil brands are used. ExxonMobil Chemical is a petrochemical company which was created by merging Exxon's and Mobil's chemical industries. Its principal products includes basic olefins and aromatics , ethylene glycol , polyethylene , and polypropylene along with speciality lines such as elastomers , plasticizers , solvents , process fluids, oxo alcohols and adhesive resins.
The company also produces synthetic lubricant base stocks as well as lubricant additives, propylene packaging films and catalysts. The company was an industry leader in metallocene catalyst technology to make unique polymers with improved performance.
Infineum, a joint venture with Royal Dutch Shell, is manufacturing and marketing crankcase lubricant additives, fuel additives , and specialty lubricant additives, as well as automatic transmission fluids , gear oils , and industrial oils. ExxonMobil conducts research on clean energy technologies, including algae biofuels , biodiesel made from agricultural waste, carbonate fuel cells , and refining crude oil into plastic by using a membrane and osmosis instead of heat.
According to Fortune Global , ExxonMobil was the ninth largest company, sixth largest publicly held corporation , and third largest oil company by revenue. ExxonMobil's headquarters are located in Irving, Texas. In October , the company stated that it would not move its headquarters to Greater Houston. Before his election as chairman and CEO, Woods was elected president of ExxonMobil and a member of the board of directors in ExxonMobil's environmental record has faced much criticism for its stance and impact on global warming.
From the late s through the s, Exxon funded research broadly in line with the developing public scientific approach. ExxonMobil funded organizations opposed to the Kyoto Protocol and seeking to influence public opinion about the scientific consensus that global warming is caused by the burning of fossil fuels. In , the New York Attorney General launched an investigation whether ExxonMobil's statements to investors were consistent with the company's decades of extensive scientific research.
Seventeen attorneys general were cooperating on investigations. Scientists and environmental groups have voiced concern that the Sakhalin-I oil and gas project in the Russian Far East, operated by an ExxonMobil subsidiary Exxon Neftegas, threatens the critically endangered western gray whale population.
Christopher Porrino served as Chief Counsel to the Christie administration from January through July and handled negotiations in the case. ExxonMobil is the target of human rights activists for actions taken by the corporation in the Indonesian territory of Aceh. The suit alleges that the ExxonMobil knowingly assisted human rights violations, including torture , murder and rape, by employing and providing material support to Indonesian military forces, who committed the alleged offenses during civil unrest in Aceh.
Human rights complaints involving Exxon's Exxon and Mobil had not yet merged relationship with the Indonesian military first arose in ; the company denies these accusations and filed a motion to dismiss the suit, which was denied in by a federal judge. ExxonMobil and American Power , says that he thinks that ExxonMobil is "able to determine American foreign policy and the fate of entire nations".
The book was also reviewed in The Economist , according to which "ExxonMobil is easy to caricature, and many critics have done so It is to Steve Coll's credit that Private Empire , his new book about ExxonMobil, refuses to subscribe to such a simplistic view.
It notes that the company shut down its operations in Indonesia to distance itself from the abuses committed against the population by that country's army, and that it decided to drill in Chad only after the World Bank agreed to ensure that the oil royalties were used for the population's benefit. The review closes by noting that "A world addicted to ExxonMobil's product needs to look in the mirror before being too critical of how relentlessly the company supplies it.
The Valdez spill is 36th worst oil spill in history in terms of sheer volume. The State of Alaska's Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council stated that the spill "is widely considered the number one spill worldwide in terms of damage to the environment". Because carcasses typically sink to the seafloor, it is estimated the death toll may be , seabirds , 2, sea otters , harbor seals , bald eagles , and up to 22 killer whales.
Billions of salmon and herring eggs were also killed. As of , oil remained on or under more than half the sound's beaches, according to a federal survey. The government-created Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council concluded that the oil disappears at less than 4 percent per year, adding that the oil will "take decades and possibly centuries to disappear entirely".
Of the 27 species monitored by the council, 17 have not recovered. While the salmon population has rebounded, and the orca whales are recovering, the herring population and fishing industry have not. Exxon was widely criticized for its slow response to cleaning up the disaster. John Devens, the Mayor of Valdez, has said his community felt betrayed by Exxon's inadequate response to the crisis. The renamed subsidiary, though wholly Exxon-controlled, has a separate corporate charter and board of directors, and the former Exxon Valdez is now the SeaRiver Mediterranean.
The renamed tanker is legally owned by a small, stand-alone company, which would have minimal ability to pay out on claims in the event of a further accident. In , Exxon still uses more single-hull tankers than the rest of the largest ten oil companies combined, including the Valdez's sister ship, the SeaRiver Long Beach. The refinery produced fuel oils, gasoline, kerosene and solvents. Naptha and gas oil, secondary products, were also stored in the refinery area.
Regulators opened an investigation in response to the pipeline oil spill. On June 14, , a bleeder plug on a tank in the Baton Rouge Refinery failed and began leaking naphtha , a substance that is composed of many chemicals including benzene. On June 18, Baton Rouge refinery representatives told the LDEQ that ExxonMobil's chemical team determined that the June 14 spill was actually a level 2 incident classification which means that a significant response to the leak was required.
Because the spill estimate and the actual amount of chemicals spilled varied drastically, the LDEQ launched an in-depth investigation on June 16 to determine the actual amounts of chemicals spilled as well as to find out what information the refinery knew and when they knew it.
The July Yellowstone River oil spill was an oil spill from an ExxonMobil pipeline running from Silver Tip to Billings, Montana , which ruptured about 10 miles west of Billings on July 1, , at about A spokesman for ExxonMobil said that the oil is within 10 miles of the spill site.
However, Montana Governor Brian Schweitzer disputed the accuracy of that figure. It did not admit liability. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Exxon Mobil. This article is about Exxon Mobil Corp. For the company's subsidiaries, see Exxon and Mobil. Crude oil Oil products Natural gas Petrochemicals Power generation. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article needs to be updated.
Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. ExxonMobil climate change controversy. ExxonMobil-New Jersey environmental contamination settlement. Accusations of ExxonMobil human rights violations in Indonesia. Exxon Valdez oil spill. Retrieved November 20, The World's Biggest Public Companies". The World's Top 25 Companies". Retrieved October 19, Who Made the List". Retrieved January 3, Retrieved April 21, Retrieved April 22, Archived from the original on May 28,