Christmas Island Cocos Keeling Islands. Retrieved 25 July Income inequality in China. Korean is spoken natively along the border with North Korea.
Graphiken â historische Inflation
At least animal species are threatened, vulnerable or in danger of local extinction in China, due mainly to human activity such as habitat destruction, pollution and poaching for food, fur and ingredients for traditional Chinese medicine. China has over 32, species of vascular plants,  and is home to a variety of forest types. Cold coniferous forests predominate in the north of the country, supporting animal species such as moose and Asian black bear , along with over bird species.
In higher montane stands of juniper and yew , the bamboo is replaced by rhododendrons. Subtropical forests, which are predominate in central and southern China, support as many as , species of flora. In recent decades, China has suffered from severe environmental deterioration and pollution.
In China, heavy metals also cause environmental pollution. Heavy metal pollution is an inorganic chemical hazard, which is mainly caused by lead Pb , chromium Cr , arsenic As , cadmium Cd , mercury Hg , zinc Zn , copper Cu , cobalt Co , and nickel Ni. Heavy metal pollutants mainly come from mining, sewage irrigation, the manufacturing of metal-containing products, and other related production activities. High level of heavy metal exposure can also cause permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities, including reading and learning disabilities, behavioral problems, hearing loss, attention problems, and disruption in the development of visual and motor function.
According to the data of a national census of pollution, China has more than 1. The total volume of discharged heavy metals in the waste water, waste gas and solid wastes are around , tons each year from — The People's Republic of China is the second-largest country in the world by land area  after Russia , and is either the third- or fourth-largest by total area, after Russia, Canada and, depending on the definition of total area, the United States.
China's constitution states that The People's Republic of China "is a socialist state under the people's democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants," and that the state organs "apply the principle of democratic centralism. The Chinese government has been variously described as communist and socialist, but also as authoritarian and corporatist ,  with heavy restrictions in many areas, most notably against free access to the Internet , freedom of the press , freedom of assembly , the right to have children , free formation of social organizations and freedom of religion.
The President is the titular head of state , elected by the National People's Congress. The Premier is the head of government , presiding over the State Council composed of four vice premiers and the heads of ministries and commissions. There have been some moves toward political liberalization, in that open contested elections are now held at the village and town levels.
Political concerns in China include the growing gap between rich and poor and government corruption. The People's Republic of China is divided into 22 provinces , five autonomous regions , each with a designated minority group; four municipalities ; and two special administrative regions SARs which enjoy a degree of political autonomy. These 31 provincial-level divisions can be collectively referred to as " mainland China ", a term which usually excludes two SARs of Hong Kong and Macau.
The PRC has diplomatic relations with countries and maintains embassies in Its legitimacy is disputed by the Republic of China and a few other countries; it is thus the largest and most populous state with limited recognition. Under its interpretation of the One-China policy , Beijing has made it a precondition to establishing diplomatic relations that the other country acknowledges its claim to Taiwan and severs official ties with the government of the Republic of China.
Chinese officials have protested on numerous occasions when foreign countries have made diplomatic overtures to Taiwan,  especially in the matter of armament sales. Much of current Chinese foreign policy is reportedly based on Premier Zhou Enlai 's Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence , and is also driven by the concept of "harmony without uniformity", which encourages diplomatic relations between states despite ideological differences. In recent decades, China has played an increasing role in calling for free trade areas and security pacts amongst its Asia-Pacific neighbours.
China has had a long and complex trade relationship with the United States. In , the United States Congress approved "permanent normal trade relations" PNTR with China, allowing Chinese exports in at the same low tariffs as goods from most other countries. China has furthermore strengthened its ties with major South American economies, becoming the largest trading partner of Brazil and building strategic links with Argentina.
Ever since its establishment after the second Chinese Civil War , the PRC has claimed the territories governed by the Republic of China ROC , a separate political entity today commonly known as Taiwan, as a part of its territory. These claims are controversial because of the complicated Cross-Strait relations , with the PRC treating the One-China policy as one of its most important diplomatic principles. In addition to Taiwan, China is also involved in other international territorial disputes.
Since the s, China has been involved in negotiations to resolve its disputed land borders, including a disputed border with India and an undefined border with Bhutan. China is additionally involved in multilateral disputes over the ownership of several small islands in the East and South China Seas, such as the Senkaku Islands and the Scarborough Shoal.
China is regularly hailed as a potential new superpower , with certain commentators citing its rapid economic progress, growing military might, very large population, and increasing international influence as signs that it will play a prominent global role in the 21st century. The Chinese democracy movement , social activists, and some members of the Communist Party of China have all identified the need for social and political reform.
While economic and social controls have been significantly relaxed in China since the s, political freedom is still tightly restricted. The Constitution of the People's Republic of China states that the "fundamental rights" of citizens include freedom of speech , freedom of the press , the right to a fair trial , freedom of religion , universal suffrage , and property rights.
However, in practice, these provisions do not afford significant protection against criminal prosecution by the state. Rural migrants to China's cities often find themselves treated as second class citizens by the hukou household registration system, which controls access to state benefits. A number of foreign governments, foreign press agencies, and NGOs also routinely criticize China's human rights record , alleging widespread civil rights violations such as detention without trial, forced abortions ,  forced confessions, torture , restrictions of fundamental rights,   and excessive use of the death penalty.
Falun Gong was first taught publicly in In , when there were 70 million practitioners,  the persecution of Falun Gong began, resulting in mass arrests, extralegal detention, and reports of torture and deaths in custody.
The Chinese government has responded to foreign criticism by arguing that the right to subsistence and economic development is a prerequisite to other types of human rights, and that the notion of human rights should take into account a country's present level of economic development.
For instance, in November the government announced plans to relax the one-child policy and abolish the much-criticized re-education through labour program,  although human rights groups note that reforms to the latter have been largely cosmetic.
The Global Slavery Index estimated that in more than 3. All except the last category are illegal. The state-imposed forced system was formally abolished in but it is not clear the extent to which its various practices have stopped. The Laogai Research Foundation in the United States estimated that there were over a thousand slave labour prisons and camps, known collectively as the Laogai. Prisoners who refuse to work are beaten, and some are beaten to death.
Many of the prisoners are political or religious dissidents, and some are recognized internationally as prisoners of conscience. A Chinese president said that they want to see two products coming out of the prisons: Harry Wu, himself a former prisoner of the Laogai, filmed undercover footage of the Laogai, and was charged with stealing state secrets.
For this, Harry Wu was sentenced to 15 years in prison, but only served 66 days before being deported to the United States. Office of the Secretary of Defense — argue that China does not report its real level of military spending, which is allegedly much higher than the official budget. As a recognized nuclear weapons state, China is considered both a major regional military power and a potential military superpower. China has made significant progress in modernising its air force in recent decades, purchasing Russian fighter jets such as the Sukhoi Su , and also manufacturing its own modern fighters, most notably the Chengdu J , J and the Shenyang J , J , J , and J In August , China tested its first hypersonic flight.
China had the largest economy in the world for most of the past two thousand years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Major sectors of competitive strength include manufacturing, mining, steel, textiles, automobiles, energy generation, banking, electronics, telecommunications, real estate, e-commerce, and tourism. Its major cities and coastal areas are far more prosperous compared to rural and interior regions.
From its founding in until late , the People's Republic of China was a Soviet-style centrally planned economy. Following Mao's death in and the consequent end of the Cultural Revolution , Deng Xiaoping and the new Chinese leadership began to reform the economy and move towards a more market-oriented mixed economy under one-party rule. Agricultural collectivization was dismantled and farmlands privatized, while foreign trade became a major new focus, leading to the creation of Special Economic Zones SEZs.
Inefficient state-owned enterprises SOEs were restructured and unprofitable ones were closed outright, resulting in massive job losses. Modern-day China is mainly characterized as having a market economy based on private property ownership,  and is one of the leading examples of state capitalism.
Since economic liberalization began in , China has been among the world's fastest-growing economies,  relying largely on investment- and export-led growth. In the years immediately following the financial crisis of , China's economic growth rate was equivalent to all of the G7 countries' growth combined. China's e-commerce industry took off in , marked by the growth of internet giants Tencent and Alibaba - purveyors of products such as WeChat and Tmall that have become ubiquitous in contemporary Chinese life.
China is also second only to the United States in venture capital activity and is home to a large number of unicorn startup companies. In , this sector contributed about CNY 8. China ranks 28th out of countries in the Global Competitiveness Index , above many advanced economies and making it by far the most competitive major emerging economy. This is largely owing to its strength in infrastructure and wide adoption of communication and information technology.
However, it lags behind advanced economies in labour market efficiency, institutional strength, and openness of market competition, especially for foreign players attempting to enter the domestic market. Following the financial crisis, Chinese authorities sought to actively wean off of its dependence on the U. Dollar as a result of perceived weaknesses of the international monetary system. China was once a world leader in science and technology up until the Ming dynasty. Ancient Chinese discoveries and inventions , such as papermaking , printing , the compass , and gunpowder the Four Great Inventions , became widespread across East Asia, the Middle East and later to Europe.
Chinese mathematicians were the first to use negative numbers. After repeated military defeats by the European colonial powers and Japan in the 19th century, Chinese reformers began promoting modern science and technology as part of the Self-Strengthening Movement.
After the Communists came to power in , efforts were made to organize science and technology based on the model of the Soviet Union , in which scientific research was part of central planning.
China is developing its education system with an emphasis on science, mathematics and engineering ; in , China graduated over 10, Ph. The Chinese space program is one of the world's most active, and is a major source of national pride. In , China's first space station module, Tiangong-1 , was launched, marking the first step in a project to assemble a large manned station by the early s.
China currently has the largest number of active cellphones of any country in the world, with over 1 billion users by February By , China hosts more than twice as much national bandwidth potential than the U. China Telecom alone serves more than 50 million broadband subscribers, while China Unicom serves more than 40 million. China is developing its own satellite navigation system, dubbed Beidou , which began offering commercial navigation services across Asia in ,  and is planned to offer global coverage by Since the late s, China's national road network has been significantly expanded through the creation of a network of national highways and expressways.
By October , there were 81 such bridges and tunnels. China has the world's largest market for automobiles, having surpassed the United States in both auto sales and production. Auto sales in exceeded China's railways , which are state-owned , are among the busiest in the world , handling a quarter of the world's rail traffic volume on only 6 percent of the world's tracks in The railways strain to meet enormous demand particularly during the Chinese New Year holiday, when the world's largest annual human migration takes place.
China's high-speed rail HSR system started construction in the early s. Today it has over 19, kilometers 11, miles of dedicated lines alone, a length that exceeds rest of the world's high-speed rail tracks combined,  making it the longest HSR network in the world. Since , the growth of rapid transit systems in Chinese cities has accelerated.
There were approximately airports in with around planned by More than two-thirds of the airports under construction worldwide in were in China,  and Boeing expects that China's fleet of active commercial aircraft in China will grow from 1, in to 5, in In , Beijing's Capital Airport ranked second in the world by passenger traffic it was 26th in Water supply and sanitation infrastructure in China is facing challenges such as rapid urbanization, as well as water scarcity, contamination, and pollution.
The national census of recorded the population of the People's Republic of China as approximately 1,,, Although a middle-income country by Western standards, China's rapid growth has pulled hundreds of millions of its people out of poverty since In , the urban unemployment rate of China was about 4.
Given concerns about population growth, China implemented a two-child limit during the s, and, in , began to advocate for an even stricter limit of one child per family. Beginning in the mid s, however, given the unpopularity of the strict limits, China began to allow some major exemptions, particularly in rural areas, resulting in what was actually a "1.
The next major loosening of the policy was enacted in December , allowing families to have two children if one parent is an only child. According to one group of scholars, one-child limits had little effect on population growth  or the size of the total population.
Their own counterfactual model of fertility decline without such restrictions implies that China averted more than million births between and , a number which may reach one billion by given all the lost descendants of births averted during the era of fertility restrictions, with one-child restrictions accounting for the great bulk of that reduction. The policy, along with traditional preference for boys, may have contributed to an imbalance in the sex ratio at birth.
China officially recognizes 56 distinct ethnic groups, the largest of which are the Han Chinese , who constitute about There are as many as living languages in China. Across northeastern and northwestern China , local ethnic groups speak Altaic languages including Manchu , Mongolian and several Turkic languages: Korean is spoken natively along the border with North Korea.
Sarikoli , the language of Tajiks in western Xinjiang , is an Indo-European language. Taiwanese aborigines , including a small population on the mainland, speak Austronesian languages. Standard Mandarin , a variety of Mandarin based on the Beijing dialect , is the official national language of China and is used as a lingua franca in the country between people of different linguistic backgrounds.
Chinese characters have been used as the written script for the Sinitic languages for thousands of years. They allow speakers of mutually unintelligible Chinese varieties to communicate with each other through writing. In , the government introduced simplified characters , which have supplanted the older traditional characters in mainland China. Chinese characters are romanized using the Pinyin system. Tibetan uses an alphabet based on an Indic script.
Uyghur is most commonly written in Persian alphabet based Uyghur Arabic alphabet. The Mongolian script used in China and the Manchu script are both derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet.
Zhuang uses both an official Latin alphabet script and a traditional Chinese character script. China has urbanized significantly in recent decades. China has over cities with a population of over one million,  including the seven megacities cities with a population of over 10 million of Chongqing, Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Tianjin, Shenzhen, and Wuhan.
The large " floating populations " of migrant workers make conducting censuses in urban areas difficult;  the figures below include only long-term residents. Since , compulsory education in China comprises primary and junior secondary school , which together last for nine years. In , 27 percent of secondary school graduates are enrolled in higher education. In February , the government pledged to provide completely free nine-year education, including textbooks and fees.
In , around The National Health and Family Planning Commission , together with its counterparts in the local commissions, oversees the health needs of the Chinese population.
At that time, the Communist Party started the Patriotic Health Campaign , which was aimed at improving sanitation and hygiene, as well as treating and preventing several diseases. Diseases such as cholera , typhoid and scarlet fever , which were previously rife in China, were nearly eradicated by the campaign.
After Deng Xiaoping began instituting economic reforms in , the health of the Chinese public improved rapidly because of better nutrition, although many of the free public health services provided in the countryside disappeared along with the People's Communes.
Healthcare in China became mostly privatized , and experienced a significant rise in quality. As of [update] , the average life expectancy at birth in China is 75 years,  and the infant mortality rate is 12 per thousand.
The government of the People's Republic of China officially espouses state atheism ,  and has conducted antireligious campaigns to this end.
Over the millennia, Chinese civilization has been influenced by various religious movements. The " three teachings ", including Confucianism , Taoism , and Buddhism Chinese Buddhism , historically have a significant role in shaping Chinese culture,   enriching a theological and spiritual framework which harkens back to the early Shang and Zhou dynasty.
China is home to many of the world's tallest religious statues , including the tallest of all, the Spring Temple Buddha in Henan. Clear data on religious affiliation in China is difficult to gather due to varying definitions of "religion" and the unorganized, diffusive nature of Chinese religious traditions. Scholars note that in China there is no clear boundary between three teachings religions, Buddhism, Taoism and local folk religious practice.
Significant faiths specifically connected to certain ethnic groups include Tibetan Buddhism and the Islamic religion of the Hui , Uyghur , Kazakh , Kyrgyz and other peoples in Northwest China.
Since ancient times, Chinese culture has been heavily influenced by Confucianism and conservative philosophies. For much of the country's dynastic era, opportunities for social advancement could be provided by high performance in the prestigious imperial examinations , which have their origins in the Han dynasty.
Chinese culture has long emphasized a sense of deep history and a largely inward-looking national perspective. The first leaders of the People's Republic of China were born into the traditional imperial order, but were influenced by the May Fourth Movement and reformist ideals. They sought to change some traditional aspects of Chinese culture, such as rural land tenure, sexism , and the Confucian system of education, while preserving others, such as the family structure and culture of obedience to the state.
Some observers see the period following the establishment of the PRC in as a continuation of traditional Chinese dynastic history, while others claim that the Communist Party's rule has damaged the foundations of Chinese culture, especially through political movements such as the Cultural Revolution of the s, where many aspects of traditional culture were destroyed, having been denounced as "regressive and harmful" or "vestiges of feudalism ".
Many important aspects of traditional Chinese morals and culture, such as Confucianism, art, literature, and performing arts like Peking opera ,  were altered to conform to government policies and propaganda at the time.
Access to foreign media remains heavily restricted. Today, the Chinese government has accepted numerous elements of traditional Chinese culture as being integral to Chinese society. With the rise of Chinese nationalism and the end of the Cultural Revolution, various forms of traditional Chinese art, literature, music, film, fashion and architecture have seen a vigorous revival,   and folk and variety art in particular have sparked interest nationally and even worldwide.
Chinese literature is based on the literature of the Zhou dynasty. Li Bai and Du Fu opened the forking ways for the poetic circles through romanticism and realism respectively. In the wake of the New Culture Movement after the end of the Qing dynasty, Chinese literature embarked on a new era with written vernacular Chinese for ordinary citizens.
Hu Shih and Lu Xun were pioneers in modern literature. Mo Yan , a xungen literature author, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in Chinese cuisine is highly diverse, drawing on several millennia of culinary history and geographical variety, in which the most influential are known as the "Eight Major Cuisines", including Sichuan , Cantonese , Jiangsu , Shandong , Fujian , Hunan , Anhui , and Zhejiang cuisines.
The diet of the common people in pre-modern times was largely grain and simple vegetables, with meat reserved for special occasions. And the bean products, such as tofu and soy milk , remain as a popular source of protein. Southern cuisine, due to the area's proximity to the ocean and milder climate, has a wide variety of seafood and vegetables; it differs in many respects from the wheat-based diets across dry northern China. Numerous offshoots of Chinese food, such as Hong Kong cuisine and American Chinese food , have emerged in the nations that play host to the Chinese diaspora.
China has become a prime sports destination worldwide. China has one of the oldest sporting cultures in the world. Physical fitness is widely emphasized in Chinese culture, with morning exercises such as qigong and t'ai chi ch'uan widely practiced,  and commercial gyms and private fitness clubs are gaining popularity across the country. China has participated in the Olympic Games since , although it has only participated as the PRC since China hosted the Summer Olympics in Beijing, where its athletes received 51 gold medals — the highest number of gold medals of any participating nation that year.
Beijing and its nearby city Zhangjiakou of Hebei province will also collaboratively host the Olympic Winter Games , which will make Beijing the first city in the world to hold both the Summer Olympics and the Winter Olympics. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the People's Republic of China. For the Republic of China, see Taiwan. For other uses, see China disambiguation.
For other uses, see PRC disambiguation. State in East Asia. Area controlled by the People's Republic of China shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green. Mongolian Uyghur Tibetan Zhuang various others . History of China and Timeline of Chinese history. Dynasties in Chinese history. Republic of China — History of the People's Republic of China. Li River near Guilin , Guangxi.
Environmental issues in China. Water resources of China and Energy policy of China. List of current Chinese provincial leaders. Foreign relations of China. Military history of China before and People's Liberation Army. Economic history of China —present.
Income inequality in China. Science and technology in China , Chinese space program , List of Chinese discoveries , List of Chinese inventions , and History of science and technology in China. Water supply and sanitation in China. Languages of China and List of endangered languages in China. Pharmaceutical industry in China. Chinese culture and Culture of the People's Republic of China.
Sport in China and China at the Olympics. China portal Asia portal. General Secretary of the Communist Party of China de facto paramount leader , President of the People's Republic of China de jure head of state , and Chairman of the Central Military Commission Commander-in-chief for both state and party.
Hong Kong and Macau use left-hand traffic except several parts of metro lines. The majority of the country's trains drive on the left. See List of countries and dependencies by area for more information. O Grande Reino da China Even those texts that did survive had to be painstakingly reconstructed from memory, luck, or forgery. Mei Ze 's "rediscovered" edition of the Book of Documents was only shown to be a forgery in the Qing dynasty.
The area under Pakistani administration is claimed by India, while the area under Indian administration is claimed by Pakistan. Tsui ,  Charles K. Kao ,  Yuan T. Eurasian Geography and Economics. Archived from the original PDF on 15 January Retrieved 7 August Retrieved 21 June For purposes of this Law, the standard spoken and written Chinese language means Putonghua a common speech with pronunciation based on the Beijing dialect and the standardized Chinese characters.
Retrieved 8 February Xi Jinping elected to lead China". Retrieved 2 January Archived from the original on 18 February Retrieved 16 April Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 24 December Retrieved 31 July Retrieved 16 November Retrieved 23 November Retrieved 10 September National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 15 January Retrieved 14 June Retrieved 16 May Retrieved 20 January Taking the per capita disposable income of nationwide households by income quintiles, that of the low-income group reached 5, yuan, the lower-middle-income group 11, yuan, the middle-income group 19, yuan, the upper-middle-income group 29, yuan, and the high-income group 54, yuan.
The Gini Coefficient for national income in was 0. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 15 September Allerdings wuchs zuletzt auch die Furcht vor spekulativen Preisblasen. China macht seit einiger Zeit eine Abkühlung der jahrelang boomenden Konjunktur zu schaffen.
Lesen Sie hier eine Analyse der chinesischen Wachstumszahlen. In den vergangenen Monaten haben die Inflationserwartungen für die meisten Industrieländer zugelegt. Verbraucherpreise Inflation in China steigt auf höchsten Stand seit Die Inflation in China ist im Januar unerwartet stark gestiegen. Diskutieren Sie über diesen Artikel. Alle Kommentare öffnen Seite 1. Wie viel Geld im Lebensmittelbereich Trends aus Branchen in 50 Ländern und über 1 Mio.
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