William Lyon Mackenzie King

 


Archived from the original PDF on June 17, University of Alabama Press. Archived from the original PDF on January 15, Gerhard Löwenthal, Karl-Eduard von Schnitzler.

The Work Of A Nation. The Center of Intelligence.


Canada is a federation composed of ten provinces and three territories. In turn, these may be grouped into four main regions: Provinces have more autonomy than territories, having responsibility for social programs such as health care , education , and welfare.

Using its spending powers, the federal government can initiate national policies in provincial areas, such as the Canada Health Act ; the provinces can opt out of these, but rarely do so in practice. Equalization payments are made by the federal government to ensure reasonably uniform standards of services and taxation are kept between the richer and poorer provinces. The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada the federal government and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively.

A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment , whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. Since the early 20th century, the growth of Canada's manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy to an urbanized, industrial one.

Canada is one of the few developed nations that are net exporters of energy. Canada also has a sizeable manufacturing sector centred in southern Ontario and Quebec, with automobiles and aeronautics representing particularly important industries. Canada has a strong cooperative banking sector, with the worlds highest per capita membership in credit unions. The Canadian Space Agency operates a highly active space program, conducting deep-space, planetary, and aviation research, and developing rockets and satellites.

The Canada Census enumerated a total population of 35,,, an increase of around 5. Canada has one of the highest per-capita immigration rates in the world, [] driven mainly by economic policy and, to a lesser extent, family reunification. Canada's population density, at 3. In common with many other developed countries, Canada is experiencing a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age.

In , the average age was As of [update] , the average life expectancy for Canadians is 81 years. According to a report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD , Canada is one of the most educated countries in the world; [] the country ranks first worldwide in the number of adults having tertiary education , with 51 percent of Canadian adults having attained at least an undergraduate college or university degree.

Since the adoption of section 23 of the Constitution Act, , education in both English and French has been available in most places across Canada. Self-reported ethnic origins of Canadians based on geographic region Census [2].

Canada is religiously diverse, encompassing a wide range of beliefs and customs. Canada has no official church, and the government is officially committed to religious pluralism. Some of the most common non-official first languages include Chinese 1,, first-language speakers , Punjabi , , Spanish , , Tagalog , , Arabic , , German , , and Italian , Citizens have the right, where there is sufficient demand, to receive federal government services in either English or French and official- language minorities are guaranteed their own schools in all provinces and territories.

Other provinces have no official languages as such, but French is used as a language of instruction, in courts, and for other government services, in addition to English. Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec allow for both English and French to be spoken in the provincial legislatures, and laws are enacted in both languages. In Ontario, French has some legal status, but is not fully co-official. Additionally, Canada is home to many sign languages , some of which are Indigenous.

Canada's culture draws influences from its broad range of constituent nationalities, and policies that promote a " just society " are constitutionally protected. Canada's approach to governance emphasizing multiculturalism, which is based on selective immigration , social integration , and suppression of far-right politics, has wide public support. Historically, Canada has been influenced by British , French , and indigenous cultures and traditions.

Through their language, art and music , Indigenous peoples continue to influence the Canadian identity. The primary characteristics of Canadian humour are irony, parody, and satire. Canada has a well-developed media sector , but its cultural output; particularly in English films , television shows , and magazines , is often overshadowed by imports from the United States.

Canada's national symbols are influenced by natural, historical, and indigenous sources. The use of the maple leaf as a Canadian symbol dates to the early 18th century. The maple leaf is depicted on Canada's current and previous flags , and on the Arms of Canada.

Canadian literature is often divided into French- and English-language literatures, which are rooted in the literary traditions of France and Britain, respectively.

Canadian visual art has been dominated by figures such as Tom Thomson — the country's most famous painter — and by the Group of Seven. Though referred to as having seven members, five artists— Lawren Harris , A. Jackson , Arthur Lismer , J. MacDonald , and Frederick Varley —were responsible for articulating the Group's ideas. They were joined briefly by Frank Johnston , and by commercial artist Franklin Carmichael. Casson became part of the Group in The Canadian music industry is the sixth-largest in the world producing internationally renowned composers , musicians and ensembles.

The earliest, The Bold Canadian , was written in Jean-Baptiste Day ceremony, and was officially adopted in The text was originally only in French before it was adapted into English in The roots of organized sports in Canada date back to the s. Canada shares several major professional sports leagues with the United States.

Other popular professional sports in Canada include Canadian football , which is played in the Canadian Football League , National Lacrosse League lacrosse, and curling.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Canada disambiguation. Country in North America. Timeline of Canadian history and List of years in Canada. Geography of Canada and Climate of Canada. Government of Canada and Politics of Canada.

Julie Payette Governor General. Justin Trudeau Prime Minister. Foreign relations of Canada and Military history of Canada. Provinces and territories of Canada. Economy of Canada and Economic history of Canada. Science and technology in Canada and Telecommunications in Canada. Largest census metropolitan areas in Canada by population Census view talk edit. Other North American [a] Caribbean and Central and South America 3. English and French — National symbols of Canada.

Sports in Canada and History of Canadian sports. Canada portal New France portal North America portal. However, "Canadian" as an ethnic group has since been added to census questionnaires for possible ancestry. Respondents generally are visibly European Anglophones and Francophones , however no-longer self-identify with their ethnic ancestral origins. This response is attributed to a multitude or generational distance from ancestral lineage.

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Over 15, conscripts went to Europe, though only a few hundred saw combat. Following the Attack on Pearl Harbor in December , Japanese Canadians were categorized as enemy aliens under the War Measures Act , which began to remove their personal rights.

Roosevelt signed Executive Order , which called for the removal of , people of Japanese ancestry from the American coastline. A historian of internment, Ann Sunahara, argues that "the American action sealed the fate of Japanese Canadians. On February 25, the federal government announced that Japanese Canadians were being moved for reasons of national security.

Others were deported to Japan. On September 22, , Prime Minister Brian Mulroney delivered an apology for the internment, and the Canadian government announced a compensation package. Throughout his tenure, King led Canada from a colony with responsible government to an autonomous nation within the British Commonwealth. King asserted Canadian autonomy against the British government's attempts to turn the Commonwealth into an alliance.

His biographer asserts that "in this struggle MacKenzie King was the constant aggressor". During the Chanak Crisis of , King refused to support the British without first consulting Parliament, while the Conservative leader, Arthur Meighen , supported Britain. King wrote in his diary of the British appeal: It is drafted designedly to play the imperial game, to test out centralization versus autonomy as regards European wars No [Canadian] contingent will go without parliament being summoned in the first instance".

Anything like centralization in London, to say nothing of a direct or indirect attempt on the part of those in office in Downing Street to tell the people of the Dominions what they should or should not do, and to dictate their duty in matters of foreign policy, is certain to prove just as injurious to the so-called 'imperial solidarity' as any attempt at interference in questions of purely domestic concern.

If membership within the British Commonwealth means participation by the Dominions in any and every war in which Great Britain becomes involved, without consultation, conference, or agreement of any kind in advance, I can see no hope for an enduring relationship. King therefore went to the Imperial Conference of and argued for greater autonomy of the Dominions. This resulted in the Balfour Declaration , which announced the equal status of all members of the British Commonwealth as it was known then , including Britain.

This eventually led to the Statute of Westminster The Canadian city of Hamilton hosted the first Empire Games in ; this competition later became known as the Commonwealth Games , and is held every four years. In the lead-up to World War II in , King affirmed Canadian autonomy by saying that the Canadian Parliament would make the final decision on the issue of going to war.

He reassured the pro-British Canadians that Parliament would surely decide that Canada would be at Britain's side if Great Britain was drawn into a major war. At the same time, he reassured those who were suspicious of British influence in Canada by promising that Canada would not participate in British colonial wars.

His Quebec lieutenant, Ernest Lapointe , promised French-Canadians that the government would not introduce conscription; individual participation would be voluntary. In , in a country which had seemed deeply divided, these promises made it possible for Parliament to agree almost unanimously to declare war.

King played two roles. On the one hand, he told English Canadians that Canada would no doubt enter war if Britain did.

On the other hand, he and his Quebec lieutenant Ernest Lapointe told French Canadians that Canada would only go to war if it was in the country's best interests. With the dual messages, King slowly led Canada toward war without causing strife between Canada's two main linguistic communities.

As his final step in asserting Canada's autonomy, King ensured that the Canadian Parliament made its own declaration of war one week after Britain. During the war, Canada rapidly expanded its diplomatic missions abroad.

However British Prime Minister Winston Churchill made all the major military and diplomatic decisions for Canada and the other dominions, with minimal consultation. While Canada hosted two major Allied conferences in Quebec in and , neither Mackenzie King nor his senior generals and admirals were invited to take part in any of the discussions. King's government introduced the Canadian Citizenship Act in , which officially created the notion of " Canadian citizens ".

Prior to this, Canadians were considered British subjects living in Canada. On January 3, , King received Canadian citizenship certificate number With the war winding down, King held a federal election in and won a minority, but formed a functioning coalition to continue governing.

As King was defeated in his own riding of Prince Albert , fellow Liberal William MacDiarmid , who was re-elected in the safe seat of Glengarry , resigned so that a by-election could be held, which was subsequently won by King.

The main opposition party Conservatives were weak for most of the two decades after R. Bennett lost the election, and King had virtually unchallenged power for much of his later years; this expanded still further during the War.

He promoted engineer C. Howe into positions of great power and influence during the War, but was hit hard by the death of key minister and protege Norman McLeod Rogers. After this setback, and the death of his Quebec lieutenant Ernest Lapointe, King sought out the reluctant Louis St. Laurent , a leading Quebec lawyer, to take over Lapointe's role, and eventually persuaded St.

Laurent to serve as a top aide. King helped found the United Nations in and attended the opening meetings in San Francisco. However, he became pessimistic about the organization's future possibilities.

After the war, King quickly dismantled wartime controls. Unlike World War I, press censorship ended with the hostilities. He began an ambitious program of social programs and laid the groundwork for Newfoundland's later entry into Canada. King moved Canada into the deepening Cold War in alliance with the U. He dealt with the espionage revelations of Soviet cipher clerk Igor Gouzenko , who defected in Ottawa in September , by quickly appointing a Royal Commission to investigate Gouzenko's allegations of a Canadian Communist spy-ring transmitting top-secret documents to Moscow.

External Affairs Minister Louis St. Laurent dealt decisively with this crisis, the first of its type in Canada's history. Laurent's leadership deepened King's respect, and helped make St.

Laurent the next Canadian Prime Minister three years later. On January 20, , King called on the Liberal Party to hold its first national convention since to choose a new leader. The August convention chose St. Laurent as the new leader of the Liberal Party. Three months later, King retired after 22 years as prime minister. King also had the most terms six as Prime Minister. Macdonald was second-in-line, with 19 years, as the longest-serving Prime Minister in Canadian history —, — King was not charismatic and did not have a large personal following.

King died on July 22, , at Kingsmere from pneumonia, with his retirement plans to write his memoirs unfulfilled. He is buried in Mount Pleasant Cemetery , Toronto. King lacked a commanding presence or oratorical skills; he did not shine on the radio or in newsreels. There was scant charisma.

His allies were annoyed by his constant intrigues. He is not remembered for great major policy innovations as prime minister. Christopher Moore says, "King had made 'Parliament will decide' his maxim, and he trotted it out whenever he wished to avoid a decision.

Advances in the welfare state were an example. His successors, especially Diefenbaker, Pearson, and Trudeau built the welfare state which he had advanced during the Second World War into the modern cradle-to-grave system. King's occult interests were kept secret during his years in office, [] and only became publicized after his death when his diaries were opened.

King communed with spirits, using seances with paid mediums. Thereby, he claimed to have communicated with Leonardo da Vinci, Wilfrid Laurier, his dead mother, his grandfather, and several of his dead dogs, as well as the spirit of the late President Roosevelt.

Some historians argue that he sought personal reassurance from the spirit world, more than political advice. After his death, one of his mediums said that she had not realized that he was a politician. King did inquire whether his party would win the election, one of the few times politics came up during his seances. However Allan Levine argues that sometimes he did pay attention to the political implications of his seances: Historians have seen in his spiritualism and occult activities a penchant for forging unities from antitheses, thus having latent political import.

Stacey , in his book A Very Double Life examined King's secret life in detail, argued that King did not allow his beliefs to influence his decisions on political matters.

Stacey wrote that King entirely gave up his interests in the occult and spiritualism during World War II. King never married, [] but had several close female friends, including Joan Patteson, a married woman with whom he spent some of his leisure time; sometimes she served as hostess at his dinner parties. Editor Charles Bowman reports that, "He felt the lack of a wife, particularly when social duties called for a hostess. Some historians have interpreted passages in his diaries as suggesting that King regularly had sexual relations with prostitutes.

King was ranked as the greatest Canadian Prime Minister by a survey of Canadian historians. He was named a Person of National Historic Significance in King's likeness is on the Canadian fifty-dollar note since King left no published political memoirs, although his private diaries were extensively detailed.

His main published work remains his book Industry and Humanity. Following the publication of King's diaries in the s, several fictional works about him were published by Canadian writers. A Romance , Lily: A Rhapsody in Red , and Igor: A Novel of Intrigue In , there was controversy over King's exclusion from a memorial to the Quebec Conference , which was attended by King, Roosevelt, and Churchill.

Canadian federalists, however, accused the government of Quebec of trying to advance their own political agenda. It is located adjacent to the Rideau Centre in downtown Ottawa, Ontario.

The bridge across the Rideau Canal in downtown Ottawa, built following World War II, is named in his honour to recognize his contributions to the land planning of the city of Ottawa. Part of his country retreat, now called Mackenzie King Estate, at Kingsmere in the Gatineau Park , near Ottawa , is open to the public. The house King died in, called " The Farm ", is the official residence of the Speaker of the House of Commons of Canada , and is not part of the park.

The estate has over 4. Kitchener was known as Berlin until A character who appeared twice in the popular s Canadian television series Due South was named "Mackenzie King" in obvious reference. King chose the following jurists to be appointed as justices of the Supreme Court of Canada by the Governor General:.

Under the new provisions, a Minister of Labour may be appointed. However, when no Minister of Labour is appointed, the Minister of Human Resources Development shall exercise the powers and perform the duties and functions of the Minister of Labour.

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